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Gangliogliomas and Other Low Grade Neuronal Neoplasms of the Central Nervous System: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prognosis

  • Douglas C. Miller
  • Wayne C. Paullus
Chapter
Part of the Tumors of the Central Nervous System book series (TCNS, volume 9)

Abstract

Glioneuronal tumors of the brain and spinal cord are relatively uncommon but highly interesting neoplasms, whose very existence provides support for current stem cell theories regarding the origins of central nervous system tumors. This chapter describes the clinical presentations, neuroradiological features, and diagnostic pathological characteristics of gangliogliomas, parenchymal neuro­cytic tumors, and other intra-parenchymal (not intraventri­cular) neuronal neoplasms of the CNS, together with summaries of current treatment options. Gangliogliomas are tumors composed of mixtures of glial cells, usually astrocytoma cells, with large neoplastic neurons (ganglion cells); the majority are slow-growing, indolent neoplasms which respond best to neurosurgical extirpation. Pleiomorphic Xantho­as­tro­cytomas, subependymal giant cell tumors, and some anaplastic large cell gliomas all may exhibit co-expression of glial and neuronal antigens in the same cells. Parenchymal neurocytic tumors mostly resemble oligo­dendrogliomas, but like their intraventricular counterparts have immunoreactivity for synaptophysin, neurofilament protein, and other neuronal antigens. These are more controversial entities, with a range of appearances (some have ganglion cells, some lack astrocytic elements whereas in others they are present, and many have anaplastic changes such as vascular hyperplasia, necrosis, and high mitotic rates).

Keywords

Ganglion Cell Total Excision Glioneuronal Tumor Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma Mixed Glioma 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of MedicineUniversity of MissouriColumbiaUSA

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