Gravity, a Geometrical Course pp 107-209 | Cite as

# Cosmology and General Relativity: Mathematical Description of the Universe

## Abstract

Chapter 5, entitled *Cosmology and General Relativity: Mathematical Description of the Universe*, provides a full-fledged introduction to Relativistic Cosmology. The chapter begins with a long mathematical interlude on the geometry of coset manifolds. These notions are necessary for the mathematical formulation of the Cosmological Principle, stating homogeneity and isotropy, but have a much wider spectrum of applications. In particular they will be very important in the subsequent chapters about Supergravity. Having prepared the stage with this mathematical preliminaries, the next sections deal with homogeneous but not isotropic cosmologies. Bianchi classification of three dimensional Lie groups is recalled, Bianchi metrics are defined and, within Bianchi type I, the Kasner metrics are discussed with some glimpses about the cosmic billiards, realized in Supergravity. Next, as a pedagogical example of a homogeneous but not isotropic cosmology, an exact solution, with and without matter, of Bianchi type II space-time is treated in full detail. After this, we proceed to the Standard Cosmological Model, including both homogeneity and isotropy. Freedman equations, all their implications and known solutions are discussed in detail and a special attention is given to the embedding of the three type of standard cosmologies (open, flat and closed) into de Sitter space. The concept of particle and event horizons is next discussed together with the derivation of exact formulae for read-shift distances. The conceptual problems (horizon and flatness) of the Standard Cosmological Model are next discussed as an introduction to the new inflationary paradigm. The basic inflationary model based on one scalar field and the slow rolling regime are addressed in the following sections with fully detailed calculations. Perturbations, the spectrum of fluctuations up to the evaluation of the spectral index and the principles of comparison with the CMB data form the last part of this very long chapter.

## Keywords

Scalar Field Event Horizon Killing Vector Bianchi Type Stress Energy Tensor## References

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