Sustainable Development and Management Policies for Soil and Water Conservation in Egypt

  • A. Z. El Bably
  • S. A. Abd El-Hafez


Sustainable development and management policies for soil and water conservation in Egypt pose a dilemma to develop irrigation strategies for irrigated agriculture to reduce negative environmental impacts, an inevitable consequence of irrigation. For proper irrigation management, it is necessary to (1) improve the accuracy of soil water balance components to calculate a reliable estimate of the leaching fraction, (2) estimate the leaching requirements and add to irrigation requirement, (3) consider the water distribution uniformity to decide which part of the field should receive at least the leaching fraction for salinity control, (4) take into account that leaching salts periodically is more practical than every irrigation, (5) consider that there is no need to increase irrigation frequency to control salt concentration except for drip irrigation, and (6) monitor the root zone salinity, especially prior to periodic leaching. Adoption of appropriate irrigation system for specific soil types is necessary, e.g. sprinkler system is well adapted to sandy and loamy soils but less so to heavy or clayey soils. The drip or trickle irrigation system is better adapted to loamy or clayey soils and release water through many emitters at rate of 2–4 l h−1. Moreover, drip irrigation provides a greater opportunity for using saline water. The policy of the Egyptian Government is to use drainage water up to EC of 4.5 dS m−1 after blending with fresh Nile water and to assure that the resultant EC of the blended water do not exceed 1.0 dS m−1.


Blending Conservation Drainage Egypt Leaching fraction 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Soil, Water and Environment Research InstituteARCGizaEgypt

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