Wildlife Accounts: A Multi-sectoral Analysis in Namibia

  • J. I. BarnesEmail author
  • O. Nhuleipo
  • A. C. Baker
  • P. I. Muteyauli
  • V. Shigwedha
Part of the Eco-Efficiency in Industry and Science book series (ECOE, volume 28)


The completion of a national wildlife inventory in 2004 enabled the development of a set of wildlife accounts for Namibia, comprising both physical and monetary asset accounts, as well as production or flow accounts. Some 2.04 million larger wild animals made up the physical wildlife asset base which produced gross output of some N$1.5 billion and directly contributed N$ 700 million to the gross national product (GNP). Non-consumptive wildlife-viewing tourism generated 62% of the total wildlife sector GNP contribution. Hunting tourism and live game production generated 19 and 10%, respectively. The wildlife use sector represented 2.1% of national GNP in 2004. Its contribution will likely triple in the next 30 years as the sector reaches potential. Namibia’s standing wildlife assets in 2004 were estimated to have a value of N$10.5 billion, a value comparable with those estimated for fish and minerals. Findings suggest that development in the sector should emphasise both non-consumptive and consumptive tourism. Property rights should be secured, through the concessions policy and the community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) programme. Investments in building appropriate stocks of wildlife in both communal and private land should be facilitated.


Wildlife Resource accounts Namibia 



This work was funded by the French GEF (Fonds Français pour l’Environ­nement Mondial, FFEM), through the Ministry of Environment and Tourism’s ICEMA (Integrated Community-Based Ecosystem Management) Project. We are grateful to Jo Tagg and Teofilus Nghitila for guiding and facilitating the process and to Dr. Glenn-Marie Lange and Dr. Jesper Stage, who provided expert advice on wildlife accounting methods. Dr. Pauline Lindeque and Jo Tagg furnished the wildlife inventory data for 2004. Peter Erb and Toivo Uahengo provided much of the essential wildlife use data including that recorded by the Ministry of Environment and Tourism. Timoletha Garöes edited the text. Numerous private operators and wildlife users provided us with essential data. The accounts build on an extensive base of micro- and macroeconomic analysis of wildlife use carried out in the Economics Unit of the Ministry of Environment and Tourism over some 15 years, supported in various ways by the Governments of Namibia, the United States of America (USAID), Sweden (Sida) and Britain (DFID). Opinions and recommendations expressed in this chapter are not necessarily those of these contributors.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. I. Barnes
    • 1
    Email author
  • O. Nhuleipo
    • 2
  • A. C. Baker
    • 2
  • P. I. Muteyauli
    • 2
  • V. Shigwedha
    • 2
  1. 1.Design and Development Services ccWindhoekNamibia
  2. 2.Environmental Economics UnitMinistry of Environment and TourismWindhoekNamibia

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