Advertisement

Is There a Role for Systemic Chemotherapy in the Treatment of Brain Metastases?

  • Marc C. ChamberlainEmail author
Chapter
  • 774 Downloads
Part of the Cancer Metastasis - Biology and Treatment book series (CMBT, volume 18)

Abstract

Brain metastases (BM) are the most common metastatic complication of systemic cancer to the central nervous system (CNS). Treatment is most often with radiotherapy (whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT), stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) or a combination) and in selected patients (for example solitary metastasis) resective surgery. The role for chemotherapy in the treatment of BM is difficult to define due to a paucity of clinical trials the majority of which are nonrandomized, retrospective studies and case reports. Two factors influence the efficacy of chemotherapy in BM; the intrinsic chemosensitivity of the tumor and chemotherapy drug delivery. Several generalizations can be made regarding chemotherapy of BM based on the limited literature. Response to chemotherapy reflects inherent chemosensitivity of the primary tumor with best responses seen with small cell lung cancer, intermediate responses seen with non-small cell lung cancer and breast cancer and low response rates with melanoma. Response to chemotherapy is in addition determined by prior chemotherapy exposure as front-line chemotherapy has higher response rates than second- or third-line chemotherapy. Response to chemotherapy as compared to WBRT or SRT is inferior and less durable. The use of chemotherapy for the treatment of BM is most often limited to patients having failed radiotherapy (often both WBRT and SRT) and with multiple lesions. Emerging data suggests that targeted therapies may play an increasing role in the treatment of BM.

Keywords

Brain Metastasis Small Cell Lung Cancer Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Inhibitor HER2 Positive Breast Cancer Central Nervous System Metastasis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Talmadge JE, Fidler IJ (2010) AACR centennial series: the biology of cancer metastasis: historical perspective. Cancer Res 70:5649–5669PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Fidler IJ (2003) The pathogenesis of cancer metastasis: the seed and soil hypothesis revisited. Nat Rev Cancer 3:453–458PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Khuntia D, Brown P, Li J, Mehta M (2006) Whole brain radiotherapy in the management of brain metastasis. J Clin Oncol 24:1295–1304PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Langer CJ, Mehta M (2005) Current management of brain metastases, with a focus on systemic options. J Clin Oncol 23:6207–6219PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Norden AD, Wen PY, Kesari S (2005) Brain metastases. Curr Opin Neurol 18:279–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Posner JB, Chernik NL (1978) Intracranial metastases from systemic cancer. Adv Neurol 19:579–592PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Zimm S, Wampler GL, Stablein D et al (1981) Intracerebral metastases in solid-tumor patients: natural history and results of treatment. Cancer 48:384–394PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Posner JB (1996) Brain metastases: 1995. A brief review. J Neurooncol 27:287–293PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chang JE, Robins HI, Mehta MP (2007) Therapeutic advances in the treatment of brain metastases. Clin Adv Hematol Oncol 5:54–64PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Barnholtz-Sloan J, Sloan A, Davis F et al (2004) Incidence proportions of brain metastases in patients diagnosed (1973–2001) in the Metropolitan Detroit Cancer Surveillance System. J Clin Oncol 22:2865–2872PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Suh JH, Chao ST, Vogelbaum MA (2009) Management of brain metastases. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 9:223–230PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gaspar LE, Chansky K, Albain KS et al (2005) Time from treatment to subsequent diagnosis of brain metastases in stage III non–small-cell lung cancer: a retrospective review by the Southwest Oncology Group. J Clin Oncol 25:2955–2961CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Pottgen C, Eberhardt W, Grannass A et al (2007) Prophylactic cranial irradiation in operable stage IIIa non-small cell lung cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy: results from a German Multicenter randomized trial. J Clin Oncol 31:4987–4992CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Auperin A, Arriagada R, Pignon JP et al (1999) Prophylactic cranial irradiation for patients with small cell lung cancer in complete remission. N Engl J Med 341:476–484PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Slotman B, Faivre-Finn C, Kramer G et al (2007) Prophylactic cranial irradiation in extensive small cell lung cancer. N Engl J Med 557:664–672CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Gregor A, Cull A, Stephens RJ et al (1997) Prophylactic cranial irradiation is indicated following complete response to induction therapy in small cell lung cancer: results of a Multicenter randomized trial: United Kingdom Coordinating Committee for Cancer Research (UKCCCR) and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC). Eur J Cancer 33:1752–1758PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lin N, Bellon JR, Winer EP (2004) CNS metastases in breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 22:3608–3617PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lin NU, Carey LA, Liu M et al (2004) Phase II trial of lapatinib for brain metastases in patients with epidermal growth factor receptor-2 positive breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 12:1993–1999Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Burnstein HJ, Lieberman SDJ, Winer EP, Klein P (2005) Isolated central nervous system metastases in patients with HER2-overexpressing advanced breast cancer treated with first line trastuzumab-based therapy. Ann Oncol 16:1772–1777CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Miller K et al (2003) Occult central nervous system metastasis from breast cancer: prevalence, predictive factors ands impact on overall survival. Ann Oncol 14:1072–1077PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Muller A, Homey B, Soto H et al (2001) Involvement of chemokine receptors in breast cancer metastasis. Nature 410:50–56PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hassan S, Ferrario C, Saragovi U et al (2009) The influence of tumor-host interactions in the stromal cell-derived factor-1/CXCR4 ligand/receptor axis in determining metastatic risk in breast cancer. Am J Pathol 175:66–73PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Cabioglu N, Summy J, Miller C et al (2005) CXCL-12/stomal cell-derived factor-1 alpha transactivates HER2-neu in breast cancer cells by a novel pathway involving Src kinase activation. Cancer Res 65:6493–6497PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Li YM, Pan Y, Wei Y et al (2004) Upregulation of CXCR4 is essential for HER2-mediated tumor metastasis. Cancer Cell 6:429–430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Raizer JJ, Hwu WJ, Panageas KS et al (2008) Brain and leptomeningeal metastases from cutaneous melanoma: survival outcomes based on clinical features. J Neurooncol 2:199–207Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Tosoni A, Lumachi F, Brandes AA (2004) Treatment of brain metastases inuncommon tumors. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther 4:783–793PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Gabos Z, Sinha R, Hanson J et al (2006) Prognostic significance of human epidermal growth factor receptor positivity for the development of brain metastasis after newly diagnosed breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 24:5658–5663PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Lesser GT (1996) Chemotherapy of cerebral metastases from solid tumors. Neurosurg Clin N Am 7:527–536PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Peerboom DM (2005) Chemotherapy in brain metastases. Neurosurgery 57(5 Suppl):S54–S65Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Buckner JC (1991) The role of chemotherapy in the treatment of patients with brainmetastases from solid tumors. Cancer Metastasis Rev 10:335–341PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Vecht CJ, Hovestadt A, Verbiest HBC, van Vliet JJ, van Putten WLJ (1994) Dose effect relationship of dexamethasone on Karnofsky performance in metastatic brain tumors: a randomized study of doses of 4, 8 and 16 mg per day. Neurology 44:675–680PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Batchelor TT, Taylor LP, Thaler HT, Posner JB, DeAngelis LM (1997) Steroid myopathy in cancer patients. Neurology 48:1234–1238PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Glantz MJ, Cole BF, Forsyth PA et al (1997) Practice parameter: anticonvulsant prophylaxis in patients with newly diagnosed brain tumors. Report of the quality standards subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology 54:1886–1893CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Hwu W, Lis E, Menell JH et al (2005) Temozolomide plus thalidomide in patients with brain metastases from Melanoma. Cancer 103:2590–2597PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Mehta MP, Rodrigus P, Terhaard CH et al (2003) Survival and neurological outcomes in a randomized trial of motexafin gadolinium and whole brain radiation therapy in brain metastases. J Clin Oncol 21:2529–2536PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Shaw E, Scott C, Suh J et al (2003) RSR13 Plus cranial radiation therapy in patients with brain metastases: comparison with Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Recursive Partitioning Analysis brain metastases database. J Clin Oncol 21:2364–2371PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Gaspar L, Scott C, Rotman M et al (1997) Recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) of prognostic factors in three Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) brain metastases trials. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 37:745–751PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Sperduto CM, Watanabe Y, Mullan J et al (2008) A validation study of a new prognostic index for patients with brain metastases: the graded prognostic assessment. J Neurosurg 109(Suppl):87–89PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Soffetti R, Mueller RP, Abacioglu MU et al (2009) Adjuvant whole brain radiotherapy versus observation after radiosurgery or surgical resection of 1–3 cerebral metastases--results of the EORTC 22952–26001 study. Neuro Oncol 11:662, Abstract #433Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Lagerwaard FJ, Levendag PC, Nowak PJ, Eijkenboom WM, Hanssens PE, Schmitz PI (1999) Identification of prognostic factors in patients with brain metastases: a review of 1292 patients. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 43:795–803PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Andrews DW, Scott CB, Sperduto PW et al (2004) Whole brain radiation therapy with or without stereotactic radiosurgery boost for patients with one to three brain metastases: phase III results of the RTOG 9508 randomized trial. Lancet 363:1665–1672PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Greig NH (1984) Chemotherapy of brain metastases: current status. Cancer Treat Rev 11:157–186PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Kortmann RD, Jeremic B, Weller M, Plasswilm L, Bamberg M (2003) Radiochemotherapy of malignant glioma in adults: clinical experiences. Strahlenther Onkol 179:219–232PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Deeken J, Löscher W (2007) The blood–brain barrier and cancer: transporters, treatment, and Trojan horses. Clin Cancer Res 13:1663–1674PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Abrey LE, Olson JD, Raizer JJ et al (2001) A phase II trial of temozolomide for patients with recurrent or progressive brain metastases. J Neurooncol 53:259–265PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Agarwala SS, Kirkwood JM, Gore M (2004) Temozolomide for the treatment of brain metastasis associated with metastatic melanoma. J Clin Oncol 22:2101–2107PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Christodoulou C, Bafaloukos D, Kosmidis P et al (2001) Phase II study of temozolomide in heavily pretreated cancer patients with brain metastases. Ann Oncol 12:249–254PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Dziadziuszko R, Ardizzoni A, Postmus PE et al (2003) Temozolomide in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer with and without brain metastases: a phase II study of the EORTC Lung Cancer Group (08965). Eur J Cancer 39:1271–1276PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Friedman HS, Evans B, Reardon D et al (2003) Phase II trial of temozolomide for patients with progressive brain metastases. Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 22:102, abstrCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Giannitto-Giorgio C, Cordio S, Di Blasi C (2005) Temozolomide shows promising activity against pretreated brain recurrences of NSCLC. Preliminary results of a phase II trial (abstr). http://www.asco.org/ac/1,1003,_12-002643-00_18-0016-00_19-002779,00.asp. Accessed 20 Jan 2005
  51. 51.
    Siena S, Landonio G, Baietta E et al (2003) Multicenter phase II study of temozolomide therapy for brain metastasis in patients with malignant melanoma, breast cancer, and non-small cell lung cancer. Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 22:102, abstrCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Arena FP, Kurzyna-Solinas A, Treanor S et al (2003) Efficacy of temozolomide in heavily pretreated patients with stage IV breast cancer with or without brain metastasis. Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 22:54, abstr 215Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Schadendorf D, Hauschild A, Ugurel S et al (2006) Dose-intensified biweekly Temozolomide in patients with asymptomatic brain metastases from malignant melanoma: a phase 2 DeCOG/ADO study. Ann Oncol 17:1592–1597PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Boogerd W, de Gast GC, Dalesio O (2007) Temozolomide in advanced malignant melanoma with small brain metastases: can we withhold cranial irradiation? Cancer 109:306–312PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Lorusso V, Galetta D, Giotta F et al (2006) Topotecan in the treatment of brain metastases:a phase II study of GOIM (Gruppo Oncologico dell’Italia Meridionale). Anticancer Res 26:2259–2263PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Oberoff C, Kieback DG, Wurstlein R et al (2001) Topotecan chemotherapy in patients with breast cancer and brain metastases: results of a pilot study. Onkologie 24:256–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Manegold C, Pawel JV, Scheithauer W et al (1996) Response of SCLC brain metastases to toptotecan therapy. Ann Oncol 7(suppl 50):106–107Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Ardizzoni A, Hansen H, Dombernowsky P et al (1997) Topotecan, a new active drug in the second-line treatment of small cell lung cancer: a phase II study in patients with refractory and sensitive disease. J Clin Oncol 15:2090–2096PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Depierre A, von Pawel J, Hans K et al (1997) Evaluation of topotecan (Hycamtin) in relapsed small cell lung cancer (SCLC): a multicenter phase II study. Lung Cancer 18(suppl 1):35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Schutte W, Manegold C, von Pawel JV (1998) Topotecan in the therapy of brain metastases in lung cancer. Onkologie 21(suppl 4):25–27Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Korfel A, Oehm C, von Pawel JV et al (2002) Response to topotecan of symptomatic brain metastases of small cell lung cancer after whole brain radiotherapy: a multicenter phase II study. Eur J Cancer 38:1724–1729PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Zulkowski K, Kath R, Semrau R et al (2001) Regression of brain metastases from breast carcinoma after chemotherapy with bendamustine. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 128:111–113PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Wang MLH, Yung WAK, Royce ME et al (2001) Capecitabine for 5-fluorouracil resistant brain metastases from breast cancer. Am J Clin Oncol 24:421–424PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Pons H, von Eyben FE, Sorensen OS et al (1991) Long-term remission of multiple brain metastases with tamoxifen. J Neurooncol 10:173–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Stewart DJ, Dahrouge S (1995) Response of brain metastases from breast cancer to megestrol acetate: a case report. J Neurooncol 24:299–301PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Boogerd W, Dalesio O, Bais EM, van der Sande JJ (1992) Response of brain metastases from breast cancer to systemic chemotherapy. Cancer 69:972–980PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Ewend MG, Brem S, Gilbert M et al (2007) Treatment of single brain metastasis with resection, intracavity carmustine polymer wafers, and radiation therapy is safe and provides excellent local control. Clin Cancer Res 13:3637–3641PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Golden GA, Meldorf M, PROLONG Study Group (2004) Patients with metastatic brain cancer, undergoing resection and Gliadel implantation experienced low local recurrence rates in the PROLONG Registry. Presented at the annual meeting of the Society of Neuro-Oncology Toronto, ON, Canada, 18–21 Nov 2004 (abstr)Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Brem S, Sampath R, Staller A, Panattil, Entis S, Chamberlain M (2006) Local control of brain metastases after craniotomy, radiation therapy and implantable chemotherapeutic wafers. American Association of Neurological Surgeons. San Francisco, CA 22–26 Apr, 2006. J Neurosurg 104:A698 (abstr)Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Cappuzzo F, Ardizzoni A, Soto-Parra H et al (2003) Epidermal growth factor receptor targeted therapy by ZD 1839 (Iressa) in patients with brain metastases from non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Lung Cancer 41:227–231PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Ceresoli G, Cappuzzo F, Gregorc V et al (2004) Gefitinib in patients with brain metastases from non-small-cell lung cancer: a prospective trial. Ann Oncol 15:1042–1047PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Hotta K, Kiura K, Ueoka H et al (2004) Effect of Gefitinib (‘Iressa’, ZD1839) on Brain Metastases in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Lung Cancer 46:255–261PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Namba Y, Kijima T, Yokota S et al (2004) Gefitinib in patients with Brain Metastases from Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: review of 15 clinical cases. Clin Lung Cancer 6:123–128PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Shimato S, Mitsudomi T, Kosaka T et al (2006) EGFR mutations in patients with brain metastases from lung cancer: association with the efficacy of gefitinib. J Neurooncol 8:137–144Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Jacquillat C, Khayat D, Banzet P et al (1990) Final report of the French Multicenter Phase II study of the Nitrosourea Fotemustine in 153 evaluable patients with disseminated malignant melanoma including patients with cerebral metastases. Cancer 66:1873–1878PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Bearz A, Garassino I, Tiseo M et al (2010) Activity of pemetrexed on brain metastases from Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer. Lung Cancer 68:264–268PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Omlin A, D’Addario G, Gillessen S, Cerny T, von Hessling A, Früh M (2009) Activity of pemetrexed against brain metastases in a patient with adenocarcinoma of the lung. Lung Cancer 65:383–384PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Barlesi F, Gervais R, Lena H et al (2011) Pemetrexed and cisplatin as first-line chemotherapy for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with asymptomatic inoperable brain metastases: a multicenter phase II trial (GFPC 07–01). Ann Oncol 22:2466–2470PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Braganca KC, Janjigian YY, Azzoli CG et al (2010) Efficacy and safety of bevacizumab in active brain metastases from non-small cell lung cancer. J Neurooncol 100:443–447PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Gow CH, Chien CR, Chang YL et al (2008) Radiotherapy in lung adenocarcinoma with brain metastases: effects of activating epidermal growth factor receptor mutations on clinical response. Clin Cancer Res 14:162–168PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Eichler AF, Kahle KT, Wang DL et al (2010) EGFR mutation status and survival after diagnosis of brain metastasis in nonsmall cell lung cancer. J Neurooncol 12:1193–1199Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Hodi FS, O’Day SJ, McDermott DF et al (2010) Improved survival with ipilimumab in patients with metastatic melanoma. N Engl J Med 363:711–723PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Flaherty KT, Puzanov I, Kim KB et al (2010) Inhibition of mutated, activated BRAF in metastatic melanoma. N Engl J Med 363:809–819PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Margolin KA, Di Giacomo AM, Maio M (2010) Brain metastasis in melanoma: clinical activity of CTLA-4 antibody therapy. Semin Oncol 37:468–472PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Ribas A, Flaherty KT (2011) BRAF targeted therapy changes the treatment paradigm in melanoma. Nat Rev Clin Oncol 8:426–433PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Chapman PB, Hauschild A, Robert C et al (2011) BRIM-3 study group. Improved survival with vemurafenib in melanoma with BRAF V600E mutation. N Engl J Med 364:2507–2516PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Lin NU, Diéras V, Paul D et al (2009) Multicenter phase II study of lapatinib in patients with brain metastases from HER2-positive breast cancer. Clin Cancer Res 15:1452–1459PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Geyer CE, Forster J, Lindquist D et al (2006) Lapatinib plus capecitabine for HER2-positive advanced breast cancer. N Engl J Med 355:2733–2743PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Glück S, Castrellon A (2009) Lapatinib plus capecitabine resolved human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive brain metastases. Am J Ther 16:585–590PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Cameron D, Casey M, Press M et al (2008) A phase III randomized comparison of lapatinib plus capecitabine versus capecitabine alone in women with advanced breast cancer that has progressed on trastuzumab: updated efficacy and biomarker analyses. Breast Cancer Res Treat 112:533–543PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Adamo V, Franchina T, Adamo B, Scandurra G, Scimone A (2006) Brain metastases in patients with non-small lung cancer: focus on the role of chemotherapy. Ann Oncol 17(Suppl 2):ii73––75PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Bernardo G, Cuzzoni Q, Strada MR et al (2002) First-line chemotherapy with vinorelbine, gemcitabine, and carboplatin in the treatment of brain metastases from non-small-cell lung cancer: a phase II study. Cancer Invest 20:293–302PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Robinet G, Thomas P, Breton JL et al (2001) Results of a phase III study of early versus delayed whole brain radiotherapy with concurrent cisplatin and vinorelbine combination in inoperable brain metastasis of non-small-cell lung cancer: Groupe Francais de Pneumo-Cancérologie (GFPC) protocol 95–1. Ann Oncol 12:59–67PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Franciosi V, Cocconi G, Michiara M et al (1999) Front-line chemotherapy with cisplatin and etoposide for patients with brain metastases from breast carcinoma, nonsmall cell lung carcinoma, or malignant melanoma: a prospective study. Cancer 85:1599–1605PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Malacarne P, Santini A, Maestri A (1996) Response of brain metastases from lung cancer to systemic chemotherapy with carboplatin and etoposide. Oncology 53:210–213PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Kaba SE, Kyritsis AP, Hess K et al (1997) TPDC-FuHu chemotherapy for the treatment of recurrent metastatic brain tumors. J Clin Oncol 15:1063–1070PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Twelves CJ, Souhami RL, Harper PG et al (1990) The response of cerebral metastases in small cell lung cancer to systemic chemotherapy. Br J Cancer 61:147–150PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Lee JS, Murphy WK, Glisson BS et al (1989) Primary chemotherapy of brain metastasis in small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol 7:916–922PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Kristensen CA, Kristjansen PEG, Hansen HH (1992) Systemic chemotherapy of brain metastases from Small-Cell Lung Cancer: a review. J Clin Oncol 10:1498–15027PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Cortes J, Rodriguez J, Aramendia JM et al (2003) Front-line paclitaxel/cisplatin-based chemotherapy in brain metastases from Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer. Oncology 64:28–35PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Postmus PE, Haaxmo-Reiche H, Smit EF et al (2000) Treatment of brain metastases of Small-Cell Lung Cancer: comparing teniposide and teniposide with whole-brain radiotherapy-a phase III study of the European Organization for the research and treatment of Cancer Lung Cancer Cooperative Group. J Clin Oncol 18:3400–3408PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Newton HB, Slivka MA, Volpi C et al (2003) Intra-arterial carboplatin and intravenous etoposide for treatment of metastatic brain tumors. J Neurooncol 61:35–44PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Christodoulou C, Bafaloukos D, Linardou H et al (2005) Temozolomide combined with cisplatin in patients with brain metastases from solid tumors: a Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group phase II study. J Neurooncol 71:61–65PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Moscetti L, Nelli F, Felici A et al (2006) Up-front chemotherapy and radiation treatment in newly diagnosed non-small cell lung cancer with brain metastases: survey by Outcome Research Network for Evaluation of treatment results in Oncology. Cancer 109:274–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Omuro AM, Raizer JJ, Demopoulos A, Malkin M, Abrey LE (2006) Vinorelbine combined with a protracted course of temozolomide for recurrent brain metastases: a phase 1 trial. J Neurooncol 78:277–280PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Minotti V, Crino L, Meacci ML et al (1998) Chemotherapy with cisplatin and teniposide for cerebral metastases in non-small cell lung cancer. Lung Cancer 20:93–98PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Richards JM, Gale D, Mehta N, Lestingi T (1998) Combination of chemotherapy with Interleukin-2 and Interferon Alfa for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. J Clin Oncol 17:651–660Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Bafaloukos D, Gogas H, Georgoulias V et al (2002) Temozolomide in combination with docetaxel in patients with advance melanoma: a phase II study of the Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group. J Clin Oncol 20:420–425PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Strauss SJ, Marples M, Napier MP, Meyer T, Boxall J, Rustin GJ (2003) A phase I (tumour site-specific) study of carboplatin and temozolomide in patients with advanced melanoma. Br J Cancer 89:1901–1905PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Fetell MR, Grossman SA, Fisher JD et al (1997) Pre-irradiation paclitaxel in glioblastoma multiforme: efficacy, pharmacology, and drug interactions: new approaches to brain tumor therapy. Central Nervous System Consortium. J Clin Oncol 15:3121–3128PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Fujita A, Fukuoka S, Takabatake H, Tagaki S, Sekine K (2000) Combination chemotherapy of cispllatin, ifosfamide, and irinotecan with rhG-CSF support in patients with brain metastases from non-small cell lung cancer. Oncology 59:291–295PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Seute T, Leffers P, Wilmink JT, Ten Velde Guul PM, Twijnstra A (2006) Response of asymptomatic brain metastases from Small-Cell Lung Cancer to Systemic First-Line Chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol 24:2079–2083PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Rosner D, Nemoto T, Lane WW (1986) Chemotherapy induces regression of brain metastases in breast carcinoma. Cancer 58:832–839PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Eckardt JR, Martin KA, Schmidt AM et al (2002) A phase 1 trial of intravenous topotecan in combination with oral temozolomide daily times 5 every 28 days. Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 21:83b, abstGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Boogerd W, Dalesio O, Balis EM et al (1992) Response of brain metastases from breast cancer to systemic chemotherapy. Cancer 69:972–980PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Antonadou D, Paraskevaidis M, Sarris G et al (2002) Phase II randomized trial of temozolomide and concurrent radiotherapy in patients with brain metastases. J Clin Oncol 20:3644–3650PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Verger E, Gil M, Yaya R et al (2005) Temozolomide and concomitant whole brain radiotherapy in patients with brain metastases: a phase II randomized trial. Intern J Radiat Oncol Bio Phy 61:185–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Margolin K, Atkins B, Thompson A et al (2002) Temozolomide and whole brain irradiation in melanoma metastatic to the brain: a phase II trial of the Cytokine Working Group. J Clin Oncol 128:214–218Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Hofman M, Kiecker F, Wurm R et al (2006) Temozolomide with or without radiotherapy in melanoma with unresectable brain metastases. J Neurooncol 76:59–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Ulrich J, Gademann G, Gollnick H (1999) Management of cerebral metastases from malignant melanoma: results of a combined, simultaneous treatment with fotemustine and irradiation. J Neurooncol 43:173–178PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Mehta MP, Khuntia D (2005) Current strategies in whole-brain radiation therapy for brain metastases. Neurosurgery 57(suppl):33–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Koay E, Sulman EP (2012) Management of brain metastasis: past lessons, modern management, and future considerations. Curr Oncol Rep 14:70–78PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Neuro-Oncology, Department of Neurology and Neurological Surgery, Fred Hutchinson Research Cancer Center, Seattle Cancer Care AllianceUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA

Personalised recommendations