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Thirty Years of Hardiness Validational Research and Practice

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Hardiness

Part of the book series: SpringerBriefs in Psychology ((BRIEFSPSYCHOL))

Abstract

The measure of the hardy attitudes has gone through several improvements, and is now an 18 item scale called the Personal Views Survey III-R. Research has shown that the test is a valid indicator of commitment, control, and challenge, which together constitute the hardy attitudes. This test is a positive predictor of various indices of performance and health, and a negative predictor of strain and denial and avoidance, in working adults and college students. The hardy attitudes test has also been shown to be a positive predictor of the hardy strategies of problem-solving coping, socially-supportive interactions, and beneficial self-care. These hardy strategies have also been shown to be positive predictors of performance and health. Also, the hardy attitudes are better predictors of performance and health than are optimism, religiosity, and well-being. Research has also shown that hardiness can be learned, especially through parental encouragement and assistance of their young.

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Correspondence to Salvatore Maddi .

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Maddi, S. (2013). Thirty Years of Hardiness Validational Research and Practice. In: Hardiness. SpringerBriefs in Psychology. Springer, Dordrecht. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-5222-1_3

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