God and Ultimate Reality: An Analytical Interpretation of Śaņkara’s Philosophy

  • R. Puligandla


The chief objective of this paper is to offer an analytical clarification of the central concepts of Śaṇkara’s Advaita Vedanta: adhyāsa (superimposition), māyā, avidyā (ignorance), appearance, Īśvara (God), and ultimate reality. Appropriate comparisons are made between Śaṇkara and Kant, Nagarjuna and Śaṇkara, and Yogacara and Śaṇkara. Contrary to the widespread view that Śaṇkara is a metaphysician, this essay demonstrates that Śaṇkara is not a metaphysician but an analytical phenomenologist. For Śaṇkara, all claims about the world and ultimate reality are to be phenomenologically certified; claims not so certifiable are metaphysical.


Categorial Framework Ultimate Reality Western Tradition Modern Cosmology Phenomenal World 
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  1. Körner, Stephan. 1970. Categorial frameworks (library of philosophy and logic). New York: Barnes and Noble.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PhilosophyUniversity of ToledoToledoUSA

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