Experts identify some important social trends around the world that have altered the sociocultural milieu in which children are raised (Cabrera, Tamis-LeMonda, Bradley, Hofferth, & Lamb, 2000. Fatherhood in the twenty-first century. Child Development, 71(1), 127–136.). These trends include increased labor force participation of mothers and consequent increase in children’s participation in formal childcare settings; increased absence of fathers in the lives of their children; increased involvement of fathers in two-parent households; and increased involvement of nonbiological fathers including step fathers, grand fathers, father figures , and adoptive fathers. In the United States, some other emerging trends include the rising number of single fathers raising children as well as stay-home dads. According to the U.S. Bureau of the Census (2011), in the year 2010, there were about 1.8 million lone fathers raising children and there were 154, 000 stay-at-home dads caring for 287,000 children, which almost doubled during the period 2003–2010.
KeywordsFather Involvement Paternal Involvement Social Father Paternity Leave Paternal Incarceration
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