Quitting Cold Turkey: Rapid Oil Independence for the USA

  • Richard GordonEmail author
  • Bryan J. Poulin
Part of the Cellular Origin, Life in Extreme Habitats and Astrobiology book series (COLE, volume 25)


Up until 1955, the United States was completely energy self-sufficient. Afterward, energy imports rose to 15 % of total energy consumption by 1980, then to 30 % in 2005. The need for 30 % additional energy in the USA since 1980 can be directly attributed to the 30 % population growth, from 227 million people in 1980 to 296 million in 2005,since consumption of energy per American held steady since 1980 (Seiferlein, 2009) (cf. Fig. 1).


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These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



We would like to thank Mark Edwards and William R. Buckley for critical readings.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Embryogenesis CenterGulf Specimen Marine LaboratoriesPanaceaUSA
  2. 2.Faculty of Business AdministrationLakehead UniversityThunder BayCanada

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