Advertisement

Leisure Time, Physical Activity, and Health

  • Jorge Mota
  • Mauro Barros
  • José Carlos Ribeiro
  • Maria Paula Santos
Chapter

Abstract

A great deal of evidence supports the many benefits of regular physical activity (PA). Although recent developments have shown the growing importance of genetics on several diseases such as obesity (Maes et al., 1997), low levels of PA increase the risk of several chronic diseases and premature mortality (Paffenbarger RS, Hyde RT, Prev Med 13(1):3–31, 1984) Rather, adequate levels of PA include several benefits such as improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular fitness, bone health, body composition, and cardiovascular as well as metabolic health biomarkers (USDHHS, Physical activity guidelines for Americans. Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC, 2008; WHO, Global recommendations on physical activity for health. World Health Organization, Geneva, 2010). Therefore, physical inactivity has been categorized as a modifiable risk factor for lifestyle-related diseases with long-term benefits in psychological, physiological, and social domains of human life regardless of the age group (Andersen et al. Lancet, 368(9532): 299–304). For instance, a recent study highlighted that living a physically active lifestyle is associated with a 40% reduction in the genetic predisposition to common obesity (Li et al., 2010), whereas genetic influences on the body mass index (BMI) are lower among those who report vigorous exercise (McCaffery et al., 2009).

Keywords

Physical Activity Sedentary Behavior Leisure Time Physical Activity Participation Kaiser Family Foundation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgements

Doctor Jorge Mota contribution was supported by National Foundation of Science and Technology (FCT), grant: SFRH/BSAB/1025/2010.

References

  1. Aaron, D. J., Kriska, A. M., Dearwater, S. R., Anderson, R. L., Olsen, T. L., Cauley, J. A., et al. (1993). The epidemiology of leisure physical activity in an adolescent population. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 25(7), 847–853.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Aaron, D. J., Storti, K. L., Robertson, R. J., Kriska, A. M., & LaPorte, R. E. (2002). Longitudinal study of the number and choice of leisure time physical activities from mid to late adolescence: Implications for school curricula and community recreation programs. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 156(11), 1075–1080.Google Scholar
  3. Aittola, T. (1998). Unconventional learning environments of young people. In H. Helve (Ed.), Unification and marginalisation of young people: Youth research 2000 program (pp. 151–160). Helsinki, Finland: The Finnish Young Research Society.Google Scholar
  4. Andersen, L. B., Harro, M., Sardinha, L. B., Froberg, K., Ekelund, U., Brage, S., et al. (2006). Physical activity and clustered cardiovascular risk in children: A cross-sectional study (The European Youth Heart Study). Lancet, 368(9532), 299–304.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Anderssen, N., & Wold, B. (1992). Parental and peer influences on leisure-time physical activity in young adolescents. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 63(4), 341–348.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Biddle, S. J., Gorely, T., Marshall, S. J., Murdey, I., & Cameron, N. (2004). Physical activity and sedentary behaviours in youth: Issues and controversies. Journal of the Royal Society of Health, 124(1), 29–33.Google Scholar
  7. Bois, J. E., Sarrazin, P. G., Brustad, R. J., Trouilloud, D. O., & Cury, F. (2005). Elementary schoolchildren’s perceived competence and physical activity involvement: The influence of parents’ role modelling behaviours and perceptions of their child’s competence. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 6(4), 381–397.Google Scholar
  8. Brodersen, N. H., Steptoe, A., Williamson, S., & Wardle, J. (2005). Sociodemographic, developmental, environmental, and psychological correlates of physical activity and sedentary behavior at age 11 to 12. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 29(1), 2–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Burton, N., Pakenham, K., & Brown, W. (2009). Evaluating the effectiveness of psychosocial resilience training for heart health, and the added value of promoting physical activity: A cluster randomized trial of the READY program. BMC Public Health, 9, 427.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Caldwell, L. L. (2005). Leisure and health: Why is leisure therapeutic? British Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 33(1), 7–26.Google Scholar
  11. Carver, A., Timperio, A., & Crawford, D. (2008). Perceptions of neighborhood safety and physical activity among youth: The CLAN study. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 5(3), 430–444.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Caspersen, C. J., Powell, K. E., & Christenson, G. M. (1985). Physical activity, exercise, and physical fitness: Definitions and distinctions for health-related research. Public Health Reports, 100(2), 126–131.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Chen, A., & Zhu, W. (2005). Young children’s intuitive interest in physical activity: Personal, school, and home factors. Journal of Physical Activity & Health, 2(1), 1–15.Google Scholar
  14. Craig, C. L., Marshall, A. L., Sjostrom, M., Bauman, A. E., Booth, M. L., Ainsworth, B. E., et al. (2003). International physical activity questionnaire: 12-country reliability and validity. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(8), 1381–1395.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Cohen, S., Janicki-Deverts, D., Chen, E., & Matthews, K. A. (2010). Childhood socioeconomic status and adult health. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1186, 37–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Dannenberg, A. L., Burton, D. C., & Jackson, R. J. (2004). Economic and environmental costs of obesity: The impact on airlines. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 27(3), 264.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Davison, K. K., Cutting, T. M., & Birch, L. L. (2003). Parents’ activity-related parenting practices predict girls’ physical activity. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(9), 1589–1595.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. de Barros, M. V., Nahas, M. V., Hallal, P. C., de Farias Junior, J. C., Florindo, A. A., & Honda de Barros, S. S. (2009). Effectiveness of a school-based intervention on physical activity for high school students in Brazil: The Saude na Boa project. Journal of Physical Activity & Health, 6(2), 163–169.Google Scholar
  19. Dishman, R. K., & Buckworth, J. (1996). Increasing physical activity: A quantitative synthesis. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 28(6), 706–719.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Drenowatz, C., Eisenmann, J. C., Pfeiffer, K. A., Welk, G., Heelan, K., Gentile, D., et al. (2010). Influence of socio-economic status on habitual physical activity and sedentary behavior in 8- to 11-year old children. BMC Public Health, 10, 214.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Duncan, M. J., Spence, J. C., & Mummery, W. K. (2005). Perceived environment and physical activity: A meta-analysis of selected environmental characteristics. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 2, 11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Eaton, S. B., Eaton, S. B. (2003). An evolutionary perspective on human physical activity: Implications for health. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A, 136, 153–159.Google Scholar
  23. Epstein, L. H., & Roemmich, J. N. (2001). Reducing sedentary behavior: Role in modifying physical activity. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, 29(3), 103–108.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Feldman, D. E., Barnett, T., Shrier, I., Rossignol, M., & Abenhaim, L. (2003). Is physical activity differentially associated with different types of sedentary pursuits? Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 157(8), 797–802.Google Scholar
  25. Findlay, L. C., Garner, R. E., Kohen, D. E. (2009). Children’s organized physical activity patterns from childhood into adolescence. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 6(6), 708–715.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Giles-Corti, B., Timperio, A., Bull, F., & Pikora, T. (2005). Understanding physical activity environmental correlates: Increased specificity for ecological models. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, 33(4), 175–181.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Gomez, J. E., Johnson, B. A., Selva, M., & Sallis, J. F. (2004). Violent crime and outdoor physical activity among inner-city youth. Preventive Medicine, 39(5), 876–881.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Goodman, E., & Whitaker, R. C. (2002). A prospective study of the role of depression in the development and persistence of adolescent obesity. Pediatrics, 110(3), 497–504.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Gordon-Larsen, P., McMurray, R. G., & Popkin, B. M. (2000). Determinants of adolescent physical activity and inactivity patterns. Pediatrics, 105(6), E83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Hamilton, M. T., Hamilton, D. G., & Zderic, T. (2007). Role of low energy expenditure and sitting in obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Diabetes, 56, 2655–2667.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Handy, S. L., Boarnet, M. G., Ewing, R., & Killingsworth, R. E. (2002). How the built environment affects physical activity: Views from urban planning. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 23(2 Suppl), 64–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Henry, J., Kaiser Family Foundation. (2004). The role of media in childhood obesity. Washington, DC: Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation.Google Scholar
  33. Hoefer, W. R., McKenzie, T. L., Sallis, J. F., Marshall, S. J., & Conway, T. L. (2001). Parental provision of transportation for adolescent physical activity. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 21(1), 48–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Hoehner, C. M., Soares, J., Parra Perez, D., Ribeiro, I. C., Joshu, C. E., Pratt, M., et al. (2008). Physical activity interventions in Latin America: A systematic review. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 34(3), 224–233.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Hume, C., Salmon, J., & Ball, K. (2005). Children’s perceptions of their home and neighborhood environments, and their association with objectively measured physical activity: A qualitative and quantitative study. Health Education Research, 20(1), 1–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Humpel, N., Owen, N., Leslie, E., Marshall, A. L., Bauman, A. E., & Sallis, J. F. (2004). Associations of location and perceived environmental attributes with walking in neighborhoods. American Journal of Health Promotion, 18(3), 239–242.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Huurre, T., Aro, H., & Rahkonen, O. (2003). Well-being and health behaviour by parental socioeconomic status: A follow-up study of adolescents aged 16 until age 32 years. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 38(5), 249–255.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Iwasaki, Y. (2007). Leisure and quality of life in an international and multicultural context: What are major pathways linking leisure to quality of life? Social Indicators Research, 82, 233–264.Google Scholar
  39. Kantomaa, M. T., Tammelin, T. H., Näyhä, S., & Taanila, A. M. (2007). Adolescents’ physical activity in relation to family income and parents’ education. Preventive Medicine, 44, 410–415.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Katzmarzyk, P. T., Church, T. S., Craig, C. L., & Bouchard, C. (2009). Sitting time and mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 41, 998–1005.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Katzmarzyk, P. T., & Malina, R. M. (1998). Contribution of organized sports participation to estimated daily energy expenditure in youth. Pediatric Exercise Science, 10(4), 378–386.Google Scholar
  42. Kerner, M. S., Kurrant, A. B., & Kalinski, M. I. (2004). Leisure-time physical activity, sedentary behavior, and fitness of high school girls. European Journal of Sport Science, 4(2), 1–17.Google Scholar
  43. Koplan, J. P., Liverman, C. T., & Kraak, V. I. (2005). Preventing childhood obesity: Health in the balance: Executive summary. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 105(1), 131–138.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Leinonen, R., Heikkinen, E., & Jylha, M. (2001). Predictors of decline in self-assessments of health among older people. A 5-year longitudinal study. Social Science & Medicine, 52(9), 1329–1341.Google Scholar
  45. Leitzmann, M. F., Park, Y., Blair, A., Ballard-Barbash, R., Mouw, T., Hollenbeck, A. R., et al. (2007). Physical activity recommendations and decreased risk of mortality. Archives Internal Medicine, 167, 2453–2460.Google Scholar
  46. Li, S., Zhao, J. H., Luan, J., Ekelund, U., Luben, R. N., Khaw, K.-T., et al. (2010). Physical activity attenuates the genetic predisposition to obesity in 20,000 men and women from EPIC-Norfolk prospective population study. PLoS Medicine, 7, e1000332.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Lloyd, K. M., & Auld, C. J. (2002). The role of leisure in determining quality of life: Issues of content and measurement. Social Indicators Research, 57, 43–71.Google Scholar
  48. Loureiro, L., Matos, M. G., Santos, M. P., Mota, J., & Diniz, J. A. (2010). Neighborhood and physical activities of Portuguese adolescents. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 7, 33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Lowry, R., Wechsler, H., Galuska, D. A., Fulton, J. E., & Kann, L. (2002). Television viewing and its associations with overweight, sedentary lifestyle, and insufficient consumption of fruits and vegetables among US high school students: Differences by race, ethnicity, and gender. The Journal of School Health, 72(10), 413–421.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Lumeng, J. C., Appugliese, D., Cabral, H. J., Bradley, R. H., & Zuckerman, B. (2006). Neighborhood safety and overweight status in children. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 160(1), 25–31.Google Scholar
  51. McCaffery, J. M., Papandonatos, G. D., Bond, D. S., Lyons, M. J., & Wing, R. R. (2009). Gene X environment interaction of vigorous exercise and body mass index among male Vietnam-era twins. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 89, 1011–1018.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. McKenzie, T. L., & Lounsberry, M. (2009). School physical education: The pill not taken. American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine, 3(3), 219–225.Google Scholar
  53. Molnar, B. E., Gortmaker, S. L., Bull, F. C., & Buka, S. L. (2004). Unsafe to play? Neighborhood disorder and lack of safety predict reduced physical activity among urban children and adolescents. American Journal of Health Promotion, 18(5), 378–386.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Mota, J., Almeida, M., Santos, P., & Ribeiro, J. C. (2005). Perceived neighborhood environments and physical activity in adolescents. Preventive Medicine, 41(5–6), 834–836.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Mota, J., Almeida, M., Santos, R., Ribeiro, J. C., & Santos, M. P. (2009). Association of perceived environmental characteristics and participation in organized and non-organized physical activities of adolescents. Pediatric Exercise Science, 21(2), 233–239.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Mota, J., & Esculcas, C. (2002). Leisure-time physical activity behavior: Structured and unstructured choices according to sex, age, and level of physical activity. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 9(2), 111–121.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Mota, J., Gomes, H., Almeida, M., Ribeiro, J. C., Carvalho, J., & Santos, M. P. (2007). Active versus passive transportation to school-differences in screen time, socio-economic position and perceived environmental characteristics in adolescent girls. Annals of Human Biology, 34(3), 273–282.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Mota, J., Gomes, H., Almeida, M., Ribeiro, J. C., & Santos, M. P. (2007). Leisure time physical activity, screen time, social background, and environmental variables in adolescents. Pediatric Exercise Science, 19(3), 279–290.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Mota, J., Ribeiro, J. C., Carvalho, J., Santos, M. P., & Martins, J. (2010). Television viewing and changes in body mass index and cardiorespiratory fitness over a two-year period in schoolchildren. Pediatric Exercise Science, 22(2), 245–253.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Mota, J., Ribeiro, J. C., & Santos, M. P. (2009). Obese girls differences in neighbourhood perceptions, screen time and socioeconomic status according to level of physical activity. Health Education Research, 24(1), 98–104.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Mota, J., Santos, P., Guerra, S., Ribeiro, J. C., & Duarte, J. A. (2003). Patterns of daily physical activity during school days in children and adolescents. American Journal of Human Biology, 15(4), 547–553.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Mota, J., Santos, M. P., & Ribeiro, J. C. (2008). Differences in leisure-time activities according to level of physical activity in adolescents. Journal of Physical Activity & Health, 5(2), 286–293.Google Scholar
  63. Mota, J., Silva, P., Aires, L., Santos, M. P., Oliveira, J., & Ribeiro, J. C. (2008). Differences in school-day patterns of daily physical activity in girls according to level of physical activity. Journal of Physical Activity & Health, 5(Suppl 1), S90–S97.Google Scholar
  64. Must, A., & Tybor, D. J. (2005). Physical activity and sedentary behavior: A review of longitudinal studies of weight and adiposity in youth. International Journal of Obesity, 29(Suppl 2), S84–S96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Ommundsen, Y., Klasson-Heggebo, L., & Anderssen, S. A. (2006). Psycho-social and environmental correlates of location-specific physical activity among 9- and 15- year-old Norwegian boys and girls: The European Youth Heart Study. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 3, 32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Owen, N., Healy, G. N., Matthews, C. E., & Dunstan, D. W. (2010). Too much sitting: The population health science of sedentary behavior. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, 38, 105–113.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Owen, N., Humpel, N., Leslie, E., Bauman, A., & Sallis, J. F. (2004). Understanding environmental influences on walking: Review and research agenda. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 27(1), 67–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Paffenbarger, R. S., Jr., & Hyde, R. T. (1984). Exercise in the prevention of coronary heart disease. Preventive Medicine, 13(1), 3–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Pate, R. R., Dowda, M., O’Neill, J. R., & Ward, D. S. (2007). Change in physical activity participation among adolescent girls from 8th to 12th grade. Journal of Physical Activity & Health, 4(1), 3–16.Google Scholar
  70. Pate, R. R., O’Neill, J. R., & Lobelo, F. (2008). The evolving definition of “sedentary”. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, 36(4), 173–178.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Pate, R. R., Ward, D. S., O’Neill, J. R., & Dowda, M. (2007). Enrollment in physical education is associated with overall physical activity in adolescent girls. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 78(4), 265–270.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Piqueras, J. A., Kuhne, W., Vera-Villarroel, P., Van Straten, A., & Cuijpers, P. (2011). Happiness and health behaviours in Chilean college students: A cross-sectional survey. BMC Public Health, 11, 443.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Raudsepp, L. (2006). The relationship between socio-economic status, parental support and adolescent physical activity. Acta Paediatrica, 95(1), 93–98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Rejeski, W. J., & Mihalko, S. L. (2001). Physical activity and quality of life in older adults. Journals of Gerontology. Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 56, 23–35.Google Scholar
  75. Romero, A. (2005). Low-income neighborhood barriers and resources for adolescents’ physical activity. Journal of Adolescent Health, 36(3), 253–259.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Sallis, J. F., Alcaraz, J. E., McKenzie, T. L., & Hovell, M. F. (1999). Predictors of change in children’s physical activity over 20 months. Variations by gender and level of adiposity. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 16(3), 222–229.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Sallis, J. F., & Owen, N. (1999). Physical Activity & Behavioral Medicine. London: Sage Publications, Inc.Google Scholar
  78. Sallis, J. F., Hovell, M. F., Hofstetter, C. R., Elder, J. P., Hackley, M., Caspersen, C. J., et al. (1990). Distance between homes and exercise facilities related to frequency of exercise among San Diego residents. Public Health Reports, 105(2), 179–185.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Sallis, J. F., Prochaska, J. J., & Taylor, W. C. (2000). A review of correlates of physical activity of children and adolescents. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 32(5), 963–975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Sallis, J. F., Zakarian, J. M., Hovell, M. F., & Hofstetter, C. R. (1996). Ethnic, socioeconomic, and sex differences in physical activity among adolescents. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 49(2), 125–134.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Santos, M. P., Esculcas, C., & Mota, J. (2004). The relationship between socioeconomic status and adolescents’ organized and nonorganized physical activities. Pediatric Exercise Science, 16(3), 210–218.Google Scholar
  82. Santos, M. P., Gomes, H., & Mota, J. (2005). Physical activity and sedentary behaviors in adolescents. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 30(1), 21–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Santos, M. P., Oliveira, J., Ribeiro, J. C., & Mota, J. (2009). Active travel to school, BMI and participation in organised and non-organised physical activity among Portuguese adolescents. Preventive Medicine, 49(6), 497–499.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Silva, M. N., Markland, D., Carraça, E. V., Vieira, P. N., Coutinho, S. R., Minderico, C. S., et al. (2011). Exercise autonomous motivation predicts 3-yr weight loss in women. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 43(4), 728–737.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Stalsberg, R., & Pedersen, A. V. (2010). Effects of socioeconomic status on the physical activity in adolescents: A systematic review of the evidence. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 20(3), 368–383.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Stratton, G., & Leonard, J. (2002). The effects of playground markings on the energy expenditure of 5- to 7-year-old school children. Pediatric Exercise Science, 14(2), 170–180.Google Scholar
  87. Strauss, R. S., Rodzilsky, D., Burack, G., & Colin, M. (2001). Psychosocial correlates of physical activity in healthy children. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 155(8), 897–902.Google Scholar
  88. Strong, W. B., Malina, R. M., Blimkie, C. J., Daniels, S. R., Dishman, R. K., Gutin, B., et al. (2005). Evidence based physical activity for school-age youth. Journal of Pediatrics, 146(6), 732–737.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Sturm, R. (2008). Stemming the global obesity epidemic: What can we learn from data about social and economic trends? Public Health, 122, 739–746.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Tassitano, R. M., Barros, M. V., Tenorio, M. C., Bezerra, J., Florindo, A. A., & Reis, R. S. (2010). Enrollment in physical education is associated with health-related behavior among high school students. The Journal of School Health, 80(3), 126–133.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Telama, R., Naul, R., Nupponen, H., Rychtecky, A., & Voulle, P. (2002). Physical fitness, sporting lifestyles and Olympic ideals: Cross-cultural studies on youth sport in Europe (Vol. 11). Schorndorf, Germany: Verlag Karl Hofman.Google Scholar
  92. Telama, R., Nupponen, H., & Piéron, M. (2005). Physical activity among young people in the context of lifestyle. European Physical Education Review, 11(2), 115–137.Google Scholar
  93. Telama, R., & Yang, X. (2000). Decline of physical activity from youth to young adulthood in Finland. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 32(9), 1617–1622.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Timperio, A., Ball, K., Salmon, J., Roberts, R., Giles-Corti, B., Simmons, D., et al. (2006). Personal, family, social, and environmental correlates of active commuting to school. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 30(1), 45–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Timperio, A., Crawford, D., Telford, A., & Salmon, J. (2004). Perceptions about the local neighborhood and walking and cycling among children. Preventive Medicine, 38(1), 39–47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Timperio, A., Salmon, J., Telford, A., & Crawford, D. (2005). Perceptions of local neighbourhood environments and their relationship to childhood overweight and obesity. International Journal of Obesity, 29(2), 170–175.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Trost, S. G., Pate, R. R., Freedson, P. S., Sallis, J. F., & Taylor, W. C. (2000). Using objective physical activity measures with youth: How many days of monitoring are needed? Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 32(2), 426–431.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Trost, S. G., Pate, R. R., Sallis, J. F., Freedson, P. S., Taylor, W. C., Dowda, M., et al. (2002). Age and gender differences in objectively measured physical activity in youth. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(2), 350–355.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Trost, S. G., Sallis, J. F., Pate, R. R., Freedson, P. S., Taylor, W. C., & Dowda, M. (2003). Evaluating a model of parental influence on youth physical activity. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 25(4), 277–282.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Trudeau, B., & Shephard, R. J. (2008). Is there a long-term health legacy of required physical education? Sports Medicine, 38(4), 265–270.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Tudor-Locke, C., Ainsworth, B. E., & Popkin, B. M. (2001). Active commuting to school: an overlooked source of childrens’ physical activity? Sports Medicine, 31(5), 309–313.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Umpierre, D., Ribeiro, P. A., Kramer, C. K., Leitão, C. B., Zucatti, A. T., Azevedo, M. J. et al. (2011). Physical activity advice only or structured exercise training and association with HbA1c levels in type 2 diabetes. A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of American Medical Association, 305(17), 1790–1799.Google Scholar
  103. USDHHS (United States Department of Health and Human Services). (2008). Physical activity guidelines for Americans. Washington, DC: Department of Health and Human Services.Google Scholar
  104. van Mechelen, W., Twisk, J. W., Post, G. B., Snel, J., & Kemper, H. C. (2000). Physical activity of young people: The Amsterdam Longitudinal Growth and Health Study. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 32(9), 1610–1616.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Vanreusel, B., Renson, R., Beunen, G., Claessens, A. L., Lefevre, J., Lysens, R., et al. (1997). A longitudinal study of youth sport participation and adherence to sport in adulthood. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 32(4), 373–387.Google Scholar
  106. Vilhjalmsson, R., & Kristjansdottir, G. (2003). Gender differences in physical activity in older children and adolescents: The central role of organized sport. Social Science & Medicine, 56(2), 363–374.Google Scholar
  107. Vilhjalmsson, R., & Thorlindsson, T. (1998). Factors related to physical activity: A study of adolescents. Social Science & Medicine, 47(5), 665–675.Google Scholar
  108. WHO. (2002). The world health report 2002 – Reducing risks, promoting healthy life. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  109. WHO. (2004). Global recommendations on physical activity for health. Geneva, Switzerland. Accessed 28 Sept 2010 at http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2010/9789241599979_eng.pdf.
  110. WHO. (2010). Global recommendations on physical activity for health. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  111. Yang, X., Telama, R., Laakso, L., & Viikari, J. (2003). Children’s and adolescents’ physical activity in relation with living environment, parents’ physical activity, age and gender. Acta Kinesiologiae Tartuensis, 8, 61–88.Google Scholar
  112. Zask, A., van Beurden, E., Barnett, L., Brooks, L. O., & Dietrich, U. C. (2001). Active school playgrounds-myth or reality? Results of the “move it groove it” project. Preventive Medicine, 33(5), 402–408.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Zinnecker, J. (1995). The cultural modernisation of childhood. In L. Chisholm, P. Buchner, H. Kruger, & M. Du Bois-Reymond (Eds.), Growing up in Europe. Contemporary horizons in childhood and youth studies (pp. 85–94). Berlin, Germany/New York: Walter de Gruyter.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jorge Mota
    • 1
  • Mauro Barros
    • 2
  • José Carlos Ribeiro
    • 1
  • Maria Paula Santos
    • 1
  1. 1.Research Centre in Physical Activity, Health and Leisure Faculty of SportsPorto UniversityPortoPortugal
  2. 2.Escola Superior de Educação FísicaUniversidade de PernambucoRecifeBrazil

Personalised recommendations