Myelodysplastic Syndromes

  • Grant E. Nybakken
  • Adam Bagg
Part of the Cancer Growth and Progression book series (CAGP, volume 14)


The myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorders typically characterized by peripheral cytopenia(s) despite marrow hypercellularity, with associated morphologic dysplasia in one or more myeloid lineages. In their initial phases they display ineffective hematopoiesis; later, maturation arrest develops, resulting in the progression to acute myeloid leukemia in a sizable minority of patients. While pediatric MDS is increasingly recognized, they are prototypically diseases of the elderly with a majority (∼85 %) of the affected over the age of 60 years and a median age at diagnosis of 76 years. Officially, the incidence is relatively low at 3.5 per 100,000 overall (Rollison et al. 2008); however, this is likely an underestimate, particularly since the incidence is gradually increasing with the average age of the United States population. Indeed, by the age of 70 it now approaches 75 per 100,000 (Cogle et al. 2011). Men are affected at a somewhat higher rate than women. There is no apparent geographical bias to the distribution of MDS; on an age-adjusted basis, the incidence is similar throughout the world, although it should be noted that these studies were performed primarily in Western nations.


Acute Myeloid Leukemia HDAC Inhibitor Fanconi Anemia Cytogenetic Abnormality Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Array 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pathology and Laboratory MedicineUniversity of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA

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