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Hazardous Agents in Wastewater: Public Health Impacts and Treatment Options for Safe Disposal and Reuse

Abstract

Wastewater contains a wide range of hazardous and non-hazardous constituents. If not properly treated, wastewater discharge or reuse can cause serious public health outcomes, such as outbreaks of infectious diseases and acute and chronic toxicity events. This chapter first describes an overview of the health effects associated with potentially hazardous wastewater constituents including microbial pathogens and toxic chemicals, and their impacts in different wastewater management scenarios, including discharge, agricultural reuse, non-potable reuse, and indirect and direct potable reuse. Naturally, different wastewater management scenarios represent different types of hazards to different groups of populations. For example, wastewater irrigation affects farmers and their families, surrounding communities, and consumers, while urban non-potable reuse, such as recreational impoundments, can pose a health risk on facility users through direct contact and accidental ingestion. The second part of this chapter focuses on the impact of wastewater treatment on hazard reduction. Various conventional, advanced, and low-rate treatment systems are covered, and conceptual treatment schemes for achieving various effluent/reclaimed water qualities suitable for safe discharge and reuse are presented. In order to encourage more aggressive water reuse scenarios such as direct potable reuse, more research is needed in the area of trace organic contaminants, with respect to their potential public health effects, monitoring, and control.

Keywords

  • Visceral Leishmaniasis
  • Personal Care Product
  • Wastewater Irrigation
  • Wastewater Reuse
  • Quantitative Risk Assessment

These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Abbreviations

AOP:

Advanced oxidation process

DBP:

Disinfection byproduct

DDT:

Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane

DPR:

Direct potable reuse

E. coli :

Escherichia coli

H2O2 :

Hydrogen peroxide

IPR:

Indirect potable reuse

MBR:

Membrane bioreactor

MF:

Microfiltration

NDMA:

N-Nitrosodimethylamine

NF:

Nanofiltration

O3 :

Ozone

PCB:

Polychlorinated biphenyl

QMRA:

Quantitative microbial risk assessment

QRRA:

Quantitative relative risk assessment

RO:

Reverse osmosis

UF:

Ultrafiltration

U.S. EPA:

United States Environmental Protection Agency

U.S. GAO:

United States General Accounting Office

UV:

Ultraviolet

WHO:

World Health Organization

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Acknowledgments

The author would like to thank his past and present colleagues, namely, Dr. Mohamed Gamal El-Din, Dr. Hongjing Fu, Dr. Ian D. Buchanan, Mr. Odell Pui, Dr. Yang Liu, Ms. Ruo Nan Sun (University of Alberta, Alberta, Canada), Ms. Lisa N. Gochenour (City of Omaha, Nebraska), Mr. Robert R. Murphy, Mr. Michael B. Nessl, Mr. Jacob D. Peterson (PACE, California), Ms. Yao Jin, and Ms. Ling Wang (University of California, Irvine-PACE), for their valuable contributions to the literature survey in the past 6 years. The editorial assistance of Ms. Kelly M. Huston and Mr. Carlos Gomez (PACE) is also gratefully acknowledged. The author would also like to thank Mr. Andrew T. Komor (PACE) for his support and encouragement.

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Ikehata, K. (2013). Hazardous Agents in Wastewater: Public Health Impacts and Treatment Options for Safe Disposal and Reuse. In: Sharma, S., Sanghi, R. (eds) Wastewater Reuse and Management. Springer, Dordrecht. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-4942-9_6

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