Hazardous Agents in Wastewater: Public Health Impacts and Treatment Options for Safe Disposal and Reuse

Chapter

Abstract

Wastewater contains a wide range of hazardous and non-hazardous constituents. If not properly treated, wastewater discharge or reuse can cause serious public health outcomes, such as outbreaks of infectious diseases and acute and chronic toxicity events. This chapter first describes an overview of the health effects associated with potentially hazardous wastewater constituents including microbial pathogens and toxic chemicals, and their impacts in different wastewater management scenarios, including discharge, agricultural reuse, non-potable reuse, and indirect and direct potable reuse. Naturally, different wastewater management scenarios represent different types of hazards to different groups of populations. For example, wastewater irrigation affects farmers and their families, surrounding communities, and consumers, while urban non-potable reuse, such as recreational impoundments, can pose a health risk on facility users through direct contact and accidental ingestion. The second part of this chapter focuses on the impact of wastewater treatment on hazard reduction. Various conventional, advanced, and low-rate treatment systems are covered, and conceptual treatment schemes for achieving various effluent/reclaimed water qualities suitable for safe discharge and reuse are presented. In order to encourage more aggressive water reuse scenarios such as direct potable reuse, more research is needed in the area of trace organic contaminants, with respect to their potential public health effects, monitoring, and control.

List of Abbreviations

AOP

Advanced oxidation process

DBP

Disinfection byproduct

DDT

Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane

DPR

Direct potable reuse

E. coli

Escherichia coli

H2O2

Hydrogen peroxide

IPR

Indirect potable reuse

MBR

Membrane bioreactor

MF

Microfiltration

NDMA

N-Nitrosodimethylamine

NF

Nanofiltration

O3

Ozone

PCB

Polychlorinated biphenyl

QMRA

Quantitative microbial risk assessment

QRRA

Quantitative relative risk assessment

RO

Reverse osmosis

UF

Ultrafiltration

U.S. EPA

United States Environmental Protection Agency

U.S. GAO

United States General Accounting Office

UV

Ultraviolet

WHO

World Health Organization

References

  1. 1.
    Asano T, Burton FL, Leverenz H, Tsuchihashi R, Tchobanoglous G (2007) Water reuse: issues, technologies, and applications. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    WHO (2006) WHO guidelines for the safe use of wastewater, excreta and greywater, vol 1, Policy and regulatory aspects. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Focazio MJ, Kolpin DW, Barnes KK, Furlong ET, Meyer MT, Zaugg SD, Barber LB, Thurman ME (2008) A national reconnaissance for pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater contaminants in the United States - II) untreated drinking water sources. Sci Total Environ 402(2–3):201–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Snyder SA (2008) Occurrence, treatment, and toxicological relevance of EDCs and pharmaceuticals in water. Ozone Sci Eng 30(1):65–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Crook J (2010) Regulatory aspects of direct potable reuse in California – an NWRI white paper. National Water Research Institute, Fountain ValleyGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Tchobanoglous G, Leverenz H, Nellor MH, Crook J (2011) Direct potable reuse – a path forward., AlexandriaGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Fu H, Ikehata K, Buchanan ID, Gamal El-Din M (2007) Health effects associated with wastewater treatment, reuse, and disposal. Water Environ Res 79(10):2161–2169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ikehata K, Gamal El-Din M, Gochenour LN (2006) Health effects associated with wastewater treatment, reuse, and disposal. Water Environ Res 78(10):2086–2096CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ikehata K, Liu Y, Sun RN (2009) Health effects associated with wastewater treatment, reuse, and disposal. Water Environ Res 81(10):2126–2146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ikehata K, Murphy RR, Liu Y, Sun RN, Nessl MB (2010) Health effects associated with wastewater treatment, reuse, and disposal. Water Environ Res 82(10):2047–2066CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ikehata K, Pui O (2008) Health effects associated with wastewater treatment, reuse, and disposal. Water Environ Res 80(10):1980–1996CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Peterson JD, Murphy RR, Jin Y, Wang L, Nessl MB, Ikehata K (2011) Health effects associated with wastewater treatment, reuse, and disposal. Water Environ Res 83(10):1853–1875CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    US EPA (2009) Emerging contaminant – 1,4-dioxane fact sheet. US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    WHO (2006) WHO guidelines for the safe use of wastewater, excreta and greywater, vol 2, Wastewater Use in Agriculture. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Raschid-Sally L, Carr R, Buechler S (2005) Managing wastewater agriculture to improve livelihoods and environmental quality in poor countries. Irrig Drain 54:S11–S22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Costa CH, Werneck GL, Rodrigues L Jr, Santos MV, Araújo IB, Moura LS, Moreira S, Gomes RB, Lima SS (2005) Household structure and urban services: neglected targets in the control of visceral leishmaniasis. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 99(3):229–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Uzunovic-Kamberovic S, Durmisevic S, Tandir S (2005) Environmental risk factors for hepatitis A infection in the Zenica-Doboj Canton, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Clin Microbiol Infect 11(2):145–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    van den Berg H, Lodder W, van der Poel W, Vennema H, Husman AMD (2005) Genetic diversity of noroviruses in raw and treated sewage water. Res Microbiol 156(4):532–540CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Greer AL, Drews SJ, Fisman DN (2009) Why “winter” vomiting disease? Seasonality, hydrology, and norovirus epidemiology in Toronto, Canada. Ecohealth 6(2):192–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ueki Y, Sano D, Watanabe T, Akiyama K, Omura T (2005) Norovirus pathway in water environment estimated by genetic analysis of strains from patients of gastroenteritis, sewage, treated wastewater, river water and oysters. Water Res 39(18):4271–4280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ahmed KS, Khan AA, Ahmed I, Tiwari SK, Habeeb A, Ahi JD, Abid Z, Ahmed N, Habibullah CM (2007) Impact of household hygiene and water source on the prevalence and transmission of Helicobacter pylori: a South Indian perspective. Singapore Med J 48(6):543–549Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Rajii MA, Minga UM, Machang’u RS (2008) Prevalence and characterization of verotocytoxin producing Escherichia coli O157 from diarrhoea patients in Morogoro, Tanzania. Tanzan J Health Res 10(3):151–158Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Alaoui HL, Oufdou K, Mezrioui NE (2010) Determination of several potential virulence factors in non-o1 Vibrio cholerae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, faecal coliforms and streptococci isolated from Marrakesh groundwater. Water Sci Technol 61(7):1895–1905CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Yassin MM, Amr SS, Al-Najar HM (2006) Assessment of microbiological water quality and its relation to human health in Gaza Governorate, Gaza Strip. Public Health 120(12):1177–1187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Fewtrell L, Bartram J (eds) (2001) Water quality: guidelines, standards, and health. IWA Publishing on behalf of the World Health Organization, LondonGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    WHO (2008) Guidelines for safe recreational-water environments, vol 1, Coastal and fresh waters. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    An YJ, Yoon CG, Jung KW, Ham JH (2007) Estimating the microbial risk of E. coli in reclaimed wastewater irrigation on paddy field. Environ Monit Assess 129(1–3):53–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Donovan E, Unice K, Roberts JD, Harris M, Finley B (2008) Risk of gastrointestinal disease associated with exposure to pathogens in the water of the Lower Passaic River. Appl Environ Microbiol 74(4):994–1003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Mara DD, Sleigh PA, Blumenthal UJ, Carr RM (2007) Health risks in wastewater irrigation: comparing estimates from quantitative microbial risk analyses and epidemiological studies. J Water Health 5(1):39–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Navarro I, Jimenez B, Lucario S, Cifuentes E (2009) Application of Helminth ova infection dose curve to estimate the risks associated with biosolid application on soil. J Water Health 7(1):31–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ryu H, Alum A, Mena KD, Abbaszadegan M (2007) Assessment of the risk of infection by Cryptosporidium and Giardia in non-potable reclaimed water. Water Sci Technol 55(1–2):283–290Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Seidu R, Heistad A, Amoah P, Drechsel P, Jenssen PD, Stenstrom TA (2008) Quantification of the health risk associated with wastewater reuse in Accra, Ghana: a contribution toward local guidelines. J Water Health 6(4):461–471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    ten Veldhuis JAE, Clemens F, Sterk G, Berends BR (2010) Microbial risks associated with exposure to pathogens in contaminated urban flood water. Water Res 44(9):2910–2918CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Falconer IR (2006) Are endocrine disrupting compounds a health risk in drinking water? Int J Environ Res Public Health 3(2):180–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Snyder SA, Westerhoff P, Yoon Y, Sedlak DL (2003) Pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and endocrine disruptors in water: implications for the water industry. Environ Eng Sci 20(5):449–469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Wright-Walters M, Volz C (2009) Municipal wastewater concentrations of pharmaceutical and xeno-estrogens: wildlife and human health implications. In: Uzochukwu GA (ed) Proceedings of the 2007 national conference on environmental science and technology. Springer, New York, pp 103–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    US GAO (2001) Chemical risk assessment – selected federal agencies’ procedures, assumptions, and policies. United States General Accounting Office, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Anderson P, Denslow N, Drewes JE, Olivieri A, Schlenk D, Snyder SA (2010) Monitoring strategies for chemicals of emerging concern (CECs) in recycled water. State Water Resources Control Board, SacramentoGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Bruce GM, Pleus RC, Snyder SA (2010) Toxicological relevance of pharmaceuticals in drinking water. Environ Sci Technol 44(14):5619–5626CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Cooper ER, Siewicki TC, Phillips K (2008) Preliminary risk assessment database and risk ranking of pharmaceuticals in the environment. Sci Total Environ 398(1–3):26–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Cunningham VL, Perino C, D’Aco VJ, Hartmann A, Bechter R (2010) Human health risk assessment of carbamazepine in surface waters of North America and Europe. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 56(3):343–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Kumar A, Chang BA, Xagoraraki I (2010) Human health risk assessment of pharmaceuticals in water: issues and challenges ahead. Int J Environ Res Public Health 7(11):3929–3953CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Levi Y (2009) Challenges in the assessment and management of health risks associated with emerging water micropollutants. Bull Acad Natl Med 193(6):1331–1341Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Schwab BW, Hayes EP, Fiori JM, Mastrocco FJ, Roden NM, Cragin D, Meyerhoff RD, D’Aco VJ, Anderson PD (2005) Human pharmaceuticals in US surface waters: a human health risk assessment. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 42(3):296–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Weber S, Khan S, Hollender J (2006) Human risk assessment of organic contaminants in reclaimed wastewater used for irrigation. Desalination 187(1–3):53–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Trussell RS (2012) Reclaimed water desalination technologies: a full-scale performance and cost comparison between electrodialysis reversal and microfiltration/reverse osmosis. WateReuse Association, AlexandriaGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Bellido JG, Barcellos C, Barbosa FD, Bastos FI (2010) Environmental sanitation and mortality associated with waterborne diseases in children under 5 years of age in Brazil. Revista Panamericana De Salud Publica-Pan Am J Public Health 28(2):114–120Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Moubarrad FZL, Assobhei O (2007) Health risks of raw sewage with particular reference to Ascaris in the discharge zone of El Jadida (Morocco). Desalination 215(1–3):120–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Qazi HA, Soomro JA, Hashmi A, Qadri MH, Rasheed F, Karim MT (2009) Public health problems in low and high socio economic areas of Karachi, Pakistan. Iran J Public Health 38(3):105–108Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Bhardwaj V, Singh DS, Singh AK (2010) Environmental repercussions of cane-sugar industries on the Chhoti Gandak river basin, Ganga Plain, India. Environ Monit Assess 171(1–4):321–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Gitipour S, Givehchi S, Aghaii A, Baghvand A (2007) Assessment of soil contamination due to leaching of industrial wastewater. Asian J Chem 19(3):1995–2001Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Mapanda F, Nyamadzawo G, Nyamangara J, Wuta M (2007) Effects of discharging acid-mine drainage into evaporation ponds lined with clay on chemical quality of the surrounding soil and water. Phys Chem Earth 32(15–18):1366–1375Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Al-Mikhlafi AS (2010) Groundwater quality of Yemen volcanic terrain and their geological and geochemical controls. Arab J Geosci 3(2):193–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Silva IR, Pereira LCC, Guimaraes DD, Trindade WN, Asp N, Costa RM (2009) Environmental status of urban beaches in Sao Luis (Amazon coast, Brazil). J Coast Res SI 56:1301–1305Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Sy I, Handschumacher P, Wyss K, Piermay JL, Tanner M, Cisse G (2009) Water and sanitation policies limits in Senegal cities: the case of Rufisque. Desalination 248(1–3):673–677CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Wong M, Kumar L, Jenkins TM, Xagoraraki I, Phanikumar MS, Rose JB (2009) Evaluation of public health risks at recreational beaches in Lake Michigan via detection of enteric viruses and a human-specific bacteriological marker. Water Res 43(4):1137–1149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    El Kettani S, Azzouzi E, Boukachabine K, El Yamani M, Maata A, Rajaoui M (2008) Intestinal parasitosis and use of untreated wastewater for agriculture in Settat, Morocco. East Mediterr Health J 14(6):1435–1444Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Trang DT, Hien BTT, Molbak K, Cam PD, Dalsgaard A (2007) Epidemiology and aetiology of diarrhoeal diseases in adults engaged in wastewater-fed agriculture and aquaculture in Hanoi, Vietnam. Trop Med Int Health 12:23–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Mapanda F, Mangwayana EN, Nyamangara J, Giller KE (2005) The effect of long-term irrigation using wastewater on heavy metal contents of soils under vegetables in Harare, Zimbabwe. Agric Ecosyst Environ 107(2–3):151–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Amoah P, Drechsel P, Abaidoo RC, Ntow WJ (2006) Pesticide and pathogen contamination of vegetables in Ghana’s urban markets. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 50(1):1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Li P, Wang X, Allinson G, Li X, Xiong X (2009) Risk assessment of heavy metals in soil previously irrigated with industrial wastewater in Shenyang, China. J Haz Mat 161(1):516–521CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Passuello A, Mari M, Nadal M, Schuhmacher M, Domingo JL (2010) POP accumulation in the food chain: integrated risk model for sewage sludge application in agricultural soils. Environ Int 36(6):577–583CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Ramadan AA, Mandil H (2009) Wastewater irrigation and soil contamination effect on some leafy vegetables grown in Syrian Aleppo City. Asian J Chem 21(4):3243–3252Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Murtaza G, Ghafoor A, Qadir M (2008) Accumulation and implications of cadmium, cobalt and manganese in soils and vegetables irrigated with city effluent. J Sci Food Agric 88(1):100–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Akoachere JF, Oben PM, Mbivnjo BS, Ndip LM, Nkwelang G, Ndip RN (2008) Bacterial indicators of pollution of the Douala lagoon, Cameroon: public health implications. Afr Health Sci 8(2):85–89Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Brinks MV, Dwight RH, Osgood ND, Sharavanakumar G, Turbow DJ, El-Gohary M, Caplan JS, Semenza JC (2008) Health risk of bathing in southern California coastal waters. Arch Environ Occup Health 63(3):123–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Crook J (2005) Irrigation of parks, playgrounds, and schoolyards with reclaimed water: extent and safety. WateReuse Association, AlexandriaGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Leverenz LH, Tchobanoglous G, Asano T (2011) Direct potable reuse: a future imperative. J Water Reuse Desalination 1(1):2–10. doi:10.2166/wrd.2011.000 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Rosario-Ortiz FL, Wert EC, Snyder SA, Mezyk SP (2011) Optimization of advanced oxidation processes (AOP) for water reuse. WateReuse Association, AlexandriaGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Bastos RK, Bevilacqua PD, Silva CA, Silva CV (2008) Wastewater irrigation of salad crops: further evidence for the evaluation of the WHO guidelines. Water Sci Technol 57(8):1213–1219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Drechsel P, Keraita B, Amoah P, Abaidoo RC, Raschid-Sally L, Bahri A (2008) Reducing health risks from wastewater use in urban and peri-urban sub-Saharan Africa: applying the 2006 WHO guidelines. Water Sci Technol 57(9):1461–1466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Keraita B, Jimenez B, Drechsel P (2008) Extent and implications of agricultural reuse of untreated, partly treated and diluted wastewater in developing countries. CAB Rev 3(058)Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Bell JP, Tsezos M (1987) Removal of hazardous organic pollutants by biomass adsorption. J Water Pollut Control Fed 59(4):191–198Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Rossin AC, Sterritt RM, Lester JN (1982) The influence of process parameters on the removal of heavy metals in activated sludge. Water Air Soil Pollut 17(2):185–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Florida Department of Environmental Protection (1999) Reuse of reclaimed water and land application. Florida Department of Environmental Protection, TallahasseeGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    US EPA (2004) Guidelines for water reuse. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Agency for International Development, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Joss A, Keller E, Alder AC, Göbel A, McArdel CS, Ternes T, Siegrist H (2005) Removal of pharmaceuticals and fragrances in biological wastewater treatment. Water Res 39(14):3139–3152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Lake DL, Kirk PWW, Lester JN (1983) Fractionation, characterization, and speciation of heavy metals in sewage sludge and sludge-amended soils: a review. J Environ Qual 13(2):175–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Straub TM, Pepper IM, Gerba CP (1993) Hazards from pathogenic microorganisms in land-disposed sewage sludge. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 132:55–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Ikehata K, Liu Y (2011) Land disposal of wastes. In: Nriagu JO (ed) Encyclopedia of environmental health. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 353–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Belfroid AC, Van der Horst A, Vethaak AD, Schäfer AJ, Rijs GBJ, Wegener J, Cofino WP (1999) Analysis and occurrence of estrogenic hormones and their glucuronides in surface water and waste water in The Netherlands. Sci Total Environ 225(1–2):101–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Drewes JE, Fox P, Jekel M (2001) Occurrence of iodinated X-ray contrast media in domestic effluents and their fate during indirect potable reuse. J Environ Sci Health A Toxic/Hazard Subst Environ Eng 36(9):1633–1645CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Kolpin DW, Furlong ET, Meyer MT, Thurman EM, Zaugg SD, Barber LB, Buxton HT (2002) Pharmaceuticals, hormones, and other organic wastewater contaminants in US streams, 1999–2000: a national reconnaissance. Environ Sci Technol 36(6):1202–1211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Ternes TA (1998) Occurrence of drugs in German sewage treatment plants and rivers. Water Res 32(11):3245–3260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Ikehata K, Naghashkar NJ, Gamal El-Din M (2006) Degradation of aqueous pharmaceuticals by ozonation and advanced oxidation processes: a review. Ozone Sci Eng 28(6):353–414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Rosenfeldt EJ, Linden KG (2004) Degradation of endocrine disrupting chemicals bisphenol A, ethinyl estradiol, and estradiol during UV photolysis and advanced oxidation processes. Environ Sci Technol 38(20):5476–5483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Snyder SA, Wert EC, Rexing DJ, Zegers RE, Drury DD (2006) Ozone oxidation of endocrine disruptors and pharmaceuticals in surface water and wastewater. Ozone Sci Eng 28(6):445–460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Snyder SA, Adham S, Redding AM, Cannon FS, Decarolis J, Oppenheimer J, Wert EC, Yoon Y (2006) Role of membranes and activated carbon in the removal of endocrine disruptors and pharmaceuticals. Desalination 202:156–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Snyder SA, Wert EC, Lei H, Westerhoff P, Yoon Y (2007) Removal of EDCs and pharmaceuticals in drinking and reuse treatment processes. Awwa Research Foundation, DenverGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Busetti F, Linge KL, Rodriguez C, Heitz A (2010) Occurrence of iodinated X-ray contrast media in indirect potable reuse systems. J Environ Sci Health Part A-Toxic/Hazard Subst Environ Eng 45(5):542–548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Rodriguez C, Cook A, Devine B, Van Buynder P, Lugg R, Linge K, Weinstein P (2008) Dioxins, furans and PCBs in recycled water for indirect potable reuse. Int J Environ Res Public Health 5(5):356–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Yoon Y, Westerhoff P, Snyder SA, Wert EC (2006) Nanofiltration and ultrafiltration of endocrine disrupting compounds, pharmaceuticals and personal care products. J Membr Sci 270(1–2):88–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Trussell RR, Anderson HA, Archuleta EG, Crook J, Drewes JE, Fort DD, Haas CN, Haddad BM, Huggett DB, Jiang S, Sedlak DL, Snyder SA, Whittaker MH, Whittington D (2012) Water reuse: potential for expanding the nation’s water supply through reuse of municipal wastewater. The National Academies Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Munakata N, Tang C-C, Huitric S-J, Ackman P, Kuo J, Garcia A, Thompson S, Friess PL, Maguin SR (2009) Comparing free chlorine and chloramines in combination with UV for disinfection of wastewater effluents and reclaimed water. Proc Water Environ Fed Disinfect 2009(10):629–638CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Graczyk TK, Lucy FE (2007) Quality of reclaimed waters: a public health need for source tracking of wastewater-derived protozoan enteropathogens in engineered wetlands. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 101(6):532–533CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Maine MA, Suñe N, Hadad H, Sánchez G, Bonetto C (2006) Nutrient and metal removal in a constructed wetland for wastewater treatment from a metallurgic industry. Ecol Eng 26:341–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Matamoros V, Bayona JM (2006) Elimination of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in subsurface flow constructed wetlands. Environ Sci Technol 40(18):5811–5816CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Pacific Advanced Civil Engineering, Inc.Fountain ValleyUSA

Personalised recommendations