Apoptosis Induction by Nimbolide, a Limonoid from Azadirachta indica: Molecular Targets and Signaling Networks

  • Nagini Siddavaram
  • Vidya Priyadarsini Ramamurthi


Azadirachta indica A. Juss commonly known as neem is one of the most versatile medicinal plants that has gained worldwide prominence as a rich source of limonoids that have potent antioxidant and anticancer properties. Of late, nimbolide, a major limonoid constituent of neem leaves has attracted considerable research attention due to its antiproliferative and apoptosis inducing effects on a panel of cancer cell lines and in an animal model of oral oncogenesis. Accumulating evidence indicates that nimbolide inhibits the growth of malignant cells in vitro and in vivo by inducing apoptosis by both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. Studies have also revealed that nimbolide influences the various signaling molecules and networks that regulate apoptosis such as inhibitors of apoptosis (IAPs), the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB), Wnt/β-catenin signaling, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascade, and histone deacetylase. Phytochemicals such as nimbolide that induce apoptosis by targeting multiple molecules and signaling pathways offer promise as ideal candidates for cancer chemoprevention and therapy.


HepG2 Cell Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Azadirachta Indica Neem Extract Neuronal Apoptosis Inhibitory Protein 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nagini Siddavaram
    • 1
  • Vidya Priyadarsini Ramamurthi
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and BiotechnologyAnnamalai UniversityAnnamalainagarIndia

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