Advertisement

Introducing Microscale Experimentation in Volumetric Analysis for Pre-service Teachers

  • Mashita Abdullah
  • Norita Mohamed
  • Zurida Haji Ismail
Chapter

Abstract

Experiments are considered a subset of practical or laboratory work, which is a didactic method of learning and practicing all the activities involved in chemistry. Central to the teaching-learning approach in the chemistry curriculum is the mastery of scientific skills, which comprise process skills, manipulative skills, and thinking skills. Students require the hands-on practical and personal laboratory experiences to acquire the skills. Volumetric analysis is one of the important concepts in chemistry that is applied in practical chemistry for the Malaysian Pre-Service teachers (PPISMP) program. However, practical chemistry classes are normally conducted in groups of four or five students for several reasons, which include cost, safety, waste disposal, and preparation time. The size of the groups limits participation to only one or two students. This can result in a low level of acquisition of scientific skills and knowledge among the students. The traditional style practicals also leave little room for creativity because opportunities for students to be involved in the activities are limited. Introducing the microscale chemistry approach at the pre-service level would help overcome these problems since this technique allows the students to conduct experiments individually. It is an environmentally safe technique with a pollution-prevention approach accomplished by using miniature glassware and significantly reduced amounts of chemicals. This study was conducted to introduce microscale chemistry experimentation in the PPISMP practical science syllabus and evaluate the feasibility of conducting this approach with students. The survey involved 39 students enrolled in the PPISMP program majoring in science. Findings show that the microscale chemistry approach produced significant advantages in terms of cost, waste, and time as well as precision. In addition, students rated this approach positively.

Keywords

Traditional Technique Practical Work Volumetric Analysis Practical Science Scientific Skill 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Abdullah, M., Ismail, Z., & Mohamed, N. (2005). Microscale experimentation in teaching chemistry. In M. Ismail, S. Osman, & H. M. Yunus (Eds.), Proceedings for seminar Pendidikan JPPG 2005 – Education for sustainable development, Universiti Sains Malaysia, August (pp. 96–103). George Town, Malaysia: School of Educational Studies, Universiti Sains Malaysia.Google Scholar
  2. Abdullah, M., Mohamed, N., & Ismail, Z. (2006). Secondary school teachers’ feedback on microscale chemistry experimentation. In Y. J. Lee, A. L. Tan, & B. T. Ho (Eds.), Proceedings of the international science education conference ISEC, November (pp. 55–65). Singapore: Nanyang Technological University.Google Scholar
  3. Bradley, J. D. (1999). Hands-on practical chemistry for all. Pure Applied Chemistry, 71(5), 817–823.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cooper, S., Conway, K., & Guseman, P. (1995). Making the most of microscale: Using microchemistry as a tool to transform teaching. The Science Teacher, 65(1), 46–49.Google Scholar
  5. Flint, E. B., Kortz, C. L., & Taylor, M. A. (2002). Microscale pH titrations using an automatic pipet. Journal of Chemical Education, 79(6), 705–706.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Hegarty-Hazel, E. (1990). Overview. In E. Hegarty-Hazel (Ed.), The student lab and the science curriculum (pp. 3–26). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  7. Hofstein, A. (2004). The laboratory in chemistry education: Thirty years of experience with deve­opments, implementation and research. Chemistry Education Research and Practice, 5(3), 247–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Kelkar, S. L., & Dhavale, D. D. (2000). Microscale experiments in chemistry: The need of the new millennium. Resonance, 5(10), 24–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. McGuire, P., Ealy, J., & Pickering, M. (1991). Microscale laboratory at the high school level: Time efficiency and student response. Journal of Chemical Education, 68(10), 869–871.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. National Microscale Chemistry Centre. (1993). Why microscale chemistry [online]. Available http://www.silvertech.com/microscale.html. Accessed 28 June 2005.
  11. Patterson, T. Y. (1998). Microscale chemistry benefits the environment and lab practices. Earth Medicine, 55(3), 1, 6.Google Scholar
  12. Richardson, J. N., Stauffer, M. T., & Henry, J. L. (2003). Microscale quantitative analysis of hard water samples using an indirect potassium permanganate redox titration. Journal of Chemical Education, 80(1), 65–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Singh, M. M., McGowan, C. B., Szafran, Z., & Pike, R. M. (1998). A modified microburet for microscale titration. Journal of Chemical Education, 75(3), 371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Singh, M. M., McGowan, C. B., Szafran, Z., & Pike, R. M. (2000). A comparative study of microscale and standard burettes. Journal of Chemical Education, 77(5), 625–626.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Singh, M. M., Szafran, Z., & Pike, R. M. (1999). Microscale chemistry and green chemistry: Complementary pedagogies. Journal of Chemical Education, 76(12), 1684–1686.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Tallmadge, W., Homan, M., Ruth, C., & Bilek, G. (2004). A local pollution prevention group collaborates with a high school intermediate unit bringing the benefits of microscale chemistry to high school chemistry labs in the Lake Erie watershed. Chemical Health & Safety, 11(4), 30–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Vermaak, I. (1997). Evaluation of cost-effective microscale equipment for a hands-on approach to chemistry practical work in secondary schools. Ph.D. thesis, Faculty of Science, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.Google Scholar
  18. Vermaak, I., & Bradley, J. (2003, September). New technologies for effective science education break the cost barrier. Paper presented at the British Educational Research Association Conference, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburg, Scotland.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mashita Abdullah
    • 1
  • Norita Mohamed
    • 1
  • Zurida Haji Ismail
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Chemical SciencesUniversiti Sains MalaysiaPenangMalaysia
  2. 2.School of Educational StudiesUniversiti Sains MalaysiaPenangMalaysia

Personalised recommendations