Advertisement

Acupuncture and Moxibustion in Animal Models of Cancer

  • Ruixin Zhang
  • Lixing Lao
Chapter
Part of the Evidence-based Anticancer Complementary and Alternative Medicine book series (ACAM, volume 3)

Abstract

Recent advances in oncological acupuncture research provide evidence to support the use of acupuncture and moxibustion for symptom management in cancer patients. Studies in tumor-bearing animals demonstrate that acupuncture significantly enhances immune function by decreasing the percentage of CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cells and increasing natural killer (NK) cell activity. The modality’s effect on NK cells has been shown to be mediated by β-endorphins. Acupuncture also has been shown to inhibit spinal interleukin-1β, dynorphin, and substance P to suppress cancer-induced pain, as well as to activate spinal opioids that alleviate chemotherapy-induced pain. Data from animal studies support the use of acupuncture for chemotherapy-induced emesis and suggest that it can improve cancer-induced depression. Moxibustion has also been shown to improve immune cell function by increasing NK cell activity, and it may alleviate cancer-induced pain. Although animal studies do not mimic human studies exactly, they reveal mechanisms by which these complementary therapies improve cancer-related symptoms. Most cancer patients experience multiple symptoms related either to cancer itself or to treatment effects. Since acupuncture and moxibustion alleviate some of these symptoms, use of these modalities has the potential to improve the patients’ quality of life.

Keywords

Cancer Pain Natural Killer Cell Activity Bone Cancer Pain Emetic Episode Electroacupuncture Treatment 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

We would like to thank Dr Lyn Lowry for her editorial assistance. This work was supported by NIH grant R21AT004113.

References

  1. Ahn, A. C., Colbert, A. P., Anderson, B. J., Martinsen, O. G., Hammerschlag, R., Cina, S., et al. (2008). Electrical properties of acupuncture points and meridians: A systematic review. Bioelectromagnetics, 29, 245–256.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Andreescu, C., Glick, R. M. Emeremni, C. A., Houck, P. R., & Mulsant, B. H. (2011). Acupuncture for the treatment of major depressive disorder: A randomized controlled trial. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 72, 1129–1135.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Argyriou, A. A., Zolota, V., Kyriakopoulou, O., & Kalofonos, H. P. (2010). Toxic peripheral neuropathy associated with commonly used chemotherapeutic agents. The Official Journal of Balkan Union of Oncology, 15, 435–446.Google Scholar
  4. Armstrong, T., Almadrones, L., & Gilbert, M. R. (2005). Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. Oncology Nursing Forum, 32, 305–311.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Balk, J., Day, R., Rosenzweig, M., & Beriwal, S. (2009). Pilot, randomized, modified, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of acupuncture for cancer-related fatigue. Journal of the Society for Integrative Oncology, 7, 4–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bao, T., Zhang, R. X., Badros, A., & Lao, L. (2011). Acupuncture Treatment for Bortezomib-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy: A Case Report. Pain Research and Treatment: doi:10.1155/2011/920807.Google Scholar
  7. Basch, E., Prestrud, A. A. Hesketh, P. J. Kris, M. G., Feyer, P. C., Somerfield, M. R., et al. (2011). Antiemetics: American Society of Clinical Oncology Clinical Practice Guideline Update. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 29, 4189–4198.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Berman, B. M., Lao, L., Langenberg, P., Lee, W. L., Gilpin, A. M., & Hochberg, M. C. (2004). Effectiveness of acupuncture as adjunctive therapy in osteoarthritis of the knee: A randomized, controlled trial. Annals of Internal Medicine, 141, 901–910.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bhagra, A., & Rao, R. D. (2007). Chemotherapy-induced neuropathy. Current Oncology Reports, 9, 290–299.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brunelli, B., & Gorson, K. C. (2004). The use of complementary and alternative medicines by patients with peripheral neuropathy. Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 218, 59–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cheng, H. L., Han, W., Hu, P. J., & Yang, J. (2008). Selection of objects separated moxibustion dialectic treatment of knee osteoarthritis in primary clinical research Clinical Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 20, 114–116.Google Scholar
  12. Cho, J. H., Chung, W. K., Kang, W., Choi, S. M., Cho, C. K., & Son, C. G. (2008). Manual acupuncture improved quality of life in cancer patients with radiation-induced xerostomia. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 14, 523–526.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Choi, G. S., Oha, S. D., Han, J. B., Bae, H. S., Cho, Y. W., Yun, Y. S., et al. (2002). Modulation of natural killer cell activity affected by electroacupuncture through lateral hypothalamic area in rats. Neuroscience Letters, 329, 1–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Choi, T. Y., Lee, M. S., Kim, T. H., Zaslawski, C., & Ernst, E. (2012). Acupuncture for the treatment of cancer pain: a systematic review of randomised clinical trials. Supportive Care in Cancer, 20, 1147–1158.Google Scholar
  15. Chong, M. S., & Bajwa, Z. H. (2003). Diagnosis and Treatment of Neuropathic Pain. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 25, S4-S11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chu, L. C., Tsaur, M. L., Lin, C. S., Hung, Y. C., Wang, T. Y., Chen, C. C., et al. (2011). Chronic intrathecal infusion of gabapentin prevents nerve ligation-induced pain in rats. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 106, 699–705.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cleary, J. F. (2000). Cancer pain management. Cancer Control, 7, 120–131.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Dang, W., & Yang, J. (1998). Clinical study on acupuncture treatment of stomach carcinoma pain. Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 18, 31–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Dibble, S. L., Luce, J., Cooper, B. A., Israel, J., Cohen, M., Nussey, B., et al. (2007). Acupressure for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: A randomized clinical trial. Oncology Nursing Forum, 34, 813–820.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Diener, H-C., Kronfeld, K., Boewing, G., Lungenhausen, M., Maier, C., Molsberger, A., et al. (2006). Efficacy of acupuncture for the prophylaxis of migraine: A multicentre randomised controlled clinical trial. Lancet Neurology, 5, 310–316.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Donald, G. K., Tobin, I., & Stringer, J. (2011). Evaluation of acupuncture in the management of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. Acupuncture in Medicine, 29, 230–233.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dos Santos, J. G., Jr., Kawano, F., Nishida, M. M., Yamamura, Y., Mello, L. E., & Tabosa, A. (2008). Antidepressive-like effects of electroacupuncture in rats. Physiology & Behavior, 93, 155–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dworkin, R. H., O’Connor, A. B., Audette, J., Baron, R., Gourlay, G. K., Haanpaa, M. L., et al. (2010). Recommendations for the pharmacological management of neuropathic pain: An overview and literature update. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 85, S3–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Feng, Y., Wang, X. Y., Li, S. D., Zhang, Y., Wang, H. M., Li, M., et al. (2011). Clinical research of acupuncture on malignant tumor patients for improving depression and sleep quality. Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 31, 199–202.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ferguson, J. (2001). SSRI Antidepressant Medications: Adverse Effects and Tolerability. Prim Care Companion. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 3, 22–27.Google Scholar
  26. Flatters, S. J. L., & Bennett, G. J. (2006). Studies of peripheral sensory nerves in paclitaxel-induced painful peripheral neuropathy: Evidence for mitochondrial dysfunction. Pain, 122, 245–257.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Frisk, J., Källström, A. C., Wall, N., Fredrikson, M., & Hammar, M. (2012). Acupuncture improves health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) and sleep in women with breast cancer and hot flushes. Support Care Cancer, 20, 715–724.Google Scholar
  28. Gardani, G., Cerrone, R., Biella, C., Galbiati, G., Proserpio, E., Casiraghi, M., et al. (2007). A progress study of 100 cancer patients treated by acupressure for chemotherapy-induced vomiting after failure with the pharmacological approach. Minerva Medica, 98, 665–668.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Goldman, N., Chen, M., Fujita, T., Xu, Q., Peng, W., Liu, W., et al. (2010). Adenosine A1 receptors mediate local anti-nociceptive effects of acupuncture. Nature Neuroscience, 13, 883–888.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gong, Q-J., Li, Y-Y., Xin, W-J., Wei, X-H., Cui, Y., Wang, J., et al. (2010). Differential effects of adenosine A1 receptor on pain-related behavior in normal and nerve-injured rats. Brain Research, 1361, 23–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Han, J. S. (2003). Acupuncture: Neuropeptide release produced by electrical stimulation of different frequencies. Trends in Neurosciences, 26, 7–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hausheer, F. H., Schilsky, R. L., Bain, S., Berghorn, E. J., & Lieberman, F. (2006). Diagnosis, management, and evaluation of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. Seminars in Oncology, 33, 15–49.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. He, L. F. (1987). Involvement of endogenous opioid peptides in acupuncture analgesia. Pain, 31, 99–121.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Jiang, L. H., & Wang, L. L. (2010). Gene chips-aided analysis on the profiles of hippocampal whole-genome expression in depression rats following electroacupuncture treatment. Acupuncture Research, 35, 83–89.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Jonsdottir, I. H., Johansson, C., Asea, A., Hellstrand, K., Thorén, P., & Hoffmann, P. (1996). Chronic intracerebroventricular administration of beta-endorphin augments natural killer cell cytotoxicity in rats. Regulatory Peptides, 62, 113–118.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Judith, A. P. (2009). Clinical Challenges: Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy. Seminars in Oncology Nursing, 25, S8-S19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kaley, T. J., & DeAngelis, L. M. (2009). Therapy of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. British Journal of Haematology, 145, 3–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kim, C. K., Choi, G. S., Oh, S. D., Han, J. B., Kim, S. K., Ahn, H. J., et al. (2005). Electroacupuncture up-regulates natural killer cell activity: Identification of genes altering their expressions in electroacupuncture induced up-regulation of natural killer cell activity. Journal of Neuroimmunology, 168, 144–153.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kim, J. H., Kim, H. K., Park, Y. I., Sohn, I. C., Choi, D. O., Kim, M. S., et al. (2006). Moxibustion at ST36 alleviates pain in complete Freund’s adjuvant-induced arthritic rats. The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, 34, 57–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kirshbaum, M. (2010). Cancer-related fatigue: A review of nursing interventions. British Journal of Community Nursing, 15, 214–216.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Lai, M., Wang, S. M., Wang, Y., Tang, C. L., Kong, L. W., & Xu, X. Y. (2008a). Effects of electroacupuncture of “Zusanli” (ST 36), “Hegu” (LI 4) and/or “Sanyinjiao” (SP 9) on immunofunction in gastric carcinectomy rats. Acupuncture Research, 33, 245–249.Google Scholar
  42. Lai, M., Wang, S. M., Zhang, W. L., Wang, Y., Huang, S. Q., Dong, W., et al. (2008b). Effects of electroacupuncture on tumor growth and immune function in the Walker-256 model rat. Zhongguo Zhen jiu, 28, 607–609.Google Scholar
  43. Lao, L., Wong, R. H., Berman, B., & Wynn, R. L. (1995). Electroacupuncture reduces morphine-induced emesis in ferrets: A pilot study. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 1, 257–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Lao, L., Zhang, G., Wong, R. H., Carter, A. K., Wynn, R. L., & Berman, B. M. (2003). The effect of electroacupuncture as an adjunct on cyclophosphamide-induced emesis in ferrets. Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior, 74, 691–699.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Lao, L., Zhang, R-X., Zhang, G., Wang, X., Berman, B. M., & Ren, K. (2004). A parametric study of electroacupuncture on persistent hyperalgesia and Fos protein expression in rats. Brain Research, 1020, 18–29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Lee, B., Shim, I., Lee, H. J., Yang, Y., & Hahm, D. H. (2009a). Effects of acupuncture on chronic corticosterone-induced depression-like behavior and expression of neuropeptide Y in the rats. Neuroscience Letters, 453, 151–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Lee, H. J., Lee, J. H., Lee, E. O., Lee, H. J., Kim, K. H., Lee, K. S., et al. (2009b). Substance P and beta endorphin mediate electroacupuncture induced analgesic activity in mouse cancer pain model. Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Research, 34, 27–40.Google Scholar
  48. Lee, M. S., Choi, T., Kang, J. W., Lee, B., & Ernst, E. (2010a). Moxibustion for treating pain: A systematic review. The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, 38, 829–838.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Lee, M. S., Choi, T. Y., Park, J. E., Lee, S. S., & Ernst, E. (2010b). Moxibustion for cancer care: A systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Cancer, 10, 130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Len, J., Xu, G., Liu, W., & Zhang, Q. (1991). The regulating effect of electroacupuncture on gastroenteric electric activity in guinea pigs of peripheral vomiting. Acupuncture Research, 16, 69–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Leo, R. J., & Ligot, J. S. Jr (2007). A systematic review of randomized controlled trials of acupuncture in the treatment of depression. Journal of Affective Disorders, 97, 13–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Li, W. G. (2007). Cotton Moxibustion treatment of herpes zoster clinical observation of 30 cases. Journal of Practical Traditional Chinese Internal Medicine, 21, 97.Google Scholar
  53. Lim, S., Ryu, Y-H., Kim, S-T., Hong, M-S., & Park, H-J. (2003). Acupuncture increases neuropeptide Y expression in hippocampus of maternally-separated rats. Neuroscience Letters, 343, 49–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Liu, L. J., Guo, C. J., Jiao, X. M., Liu, L. J., Guo, C. J., & Jiao, X. M. (1995). Effect of acupuncture on immunologic function and histopathology of transplanted mammary cancer in mice. Chinese Journal of Integrative Traditional Western Medicine, 15, 615–617.Google Scholar
  55. Liu, J., Lee, Y. T., Lee, S. E., Lee, J. Y., & Kim, D. H. (2007). Anti-emetic effect of oculo-acupuncture on dogs with xylazine induced vomiting. The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, 35, 447–453.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Liu, Z. D., Pei, J., Fu, Q. H., Li, H. Y., Yu, Q. W., Zhang, J. Y., et al. (2009). Influence of electroacupuncture and moxibustion and their treated mouse serum on the proliferation of the cultured splenetic CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cells of tumor-bearing mice. Acupuncture Research, 34, 219–224.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Liu, L. L., Zhao, B. X., Xie, Z. H., & Fan, Y. P. (2010). Changes of electrical property of the twelve source-points in encephaloma patients before and after surgery. Acupuncture Research, 35, 52–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Liyanage, U. K., Goedegebuure, P. S., Moore, T. T., Viehl, C. T., Moo-Young, T. A., Larson, J. W., et al. (2006). Increased prevalence of regulatory T cells (Treg) is induced by pancreas adenocarcinoma. Journal of Immunotherapy, 29, 416–424.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Lorusso, L. M. S., Capelli, E., Ferrari, D., Ngonga, G. K., & Ricevuti, G. (2009). Immunological aspects of chronic fatigue syndrome. Autoimmunity Reviews, 8, 287–291.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Lu, F., Zhu, H. M., Xie, J. J., Zhou, H. H., Chen, Y. L., & Hu, J. Y. (2008). Effects of electroacupuncture on behavior, plasma COR and expressions of PKA and PKC in hippocampus of the depression model rat. Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, 28, 214–218.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Lu, W., Matulonis, U. A., Doherty-Gilman, A., Lee, H., Dean-Clower, E., Rosulek, A., et al. (2009). Acupuncture for chemotherapy-induced neutropenia in patients with gynecologic malignancies: A pilot randomized, sham-controlled clinical trial. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 15, 745–753.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Malik, B., & Stillman, M. (2008). Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports, 8, 56–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Mao-Ying, Q. L., Cui, K. M., Liu, Q., Dong, Z. Q., Wang, W., Wang, J., et al. (2006). Stage-dependent analgesia of electro-acupuncture in a mouse model of cutaneous cancer pain. European Journal of Pain, 10, 689–694.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Mao-Ying, Q. L., Ren, D. H., Mi, W. L., Liu, Q., & Wang, Y. Q. (2008). Analgesic effects of electroacupuncture combined with Celebrex on rats with tibial cancer pain. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 6, 830–835.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Mayer, D. J. (2000). Biological mechanisms of acupuncture. Progress in Brain Research, 122, 457–477.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Mehnert, A., & Koch, U. (2008). Psychological comorbidity and health-related quality of life and its association with awareness, utilization, and need for psychosocial support in a cancer register-based sample of long-term breast cancer survivors. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 64, 383–391.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Melchart, D., Streng, A., Hoppe, A., Brinkhaus, B., Witt, C., Wagenpfeil, S., et al. (2005). Acupuncture in patients with tension-type headache: Randomised controlled trial. British Medical Journal, 331, 376–382.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Meng, X., Zhang, Y., Li, A., Xin, J., Lao, L., Ren, K., et al. (2011). The effects of opioid receptor antagonists on electroacupuncture-produced anti-allodynia/hyperalgesia in rats with paclitaxel-evoked peripheral neuropathy. Brain Research, 1414, 58–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Molassiotis, A., Sylt, P., & Diggins, H. (2007). The management of cancer-related fatigue after chemotherapy with acupuncture and acupressure: A randomised controlled trial. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 15, 228–237.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Napadow, V., Makris, N., Liu, J., Kettner, N. W., Kwong, K. K., & Hui, K. K. S. (2005). Effects of electroacupuncture versus manual acupuncture on the human brain as measured by fMRI. Human Brain Mapping, 24, 193–205.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. O’Regan, D., & Filshie, J. (2010). Acupuncture and cancer. Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical, 157, 96–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Pachman, D. R., Barton, D. L., Watson, J. C., & Loprinzi, C. L. (2011). Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy: Prevention and Treatment. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 90, 377–387.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Paley, C. A., & Johnson, M. I. (2011). Acupuncture for cancer-induced bone pain: A pilot study. Acupuncture in Medicine: Journal of the British Medical Acupuncture Society, 29, 71–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Paley, C. A., Johnson, M. I., & Bennett, M. I. (2011a). Should physiotherapists use acupuncture for treating patients with cancer-induced bone pain? A discussion paper. Physiotherapy, 97, 256–263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Paley, C. A., Johnson, M. I., Tashani, O. A., & Bagnall, A. M. (2011b). Acupuncture for cancer pain in adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 1, CD007753.Google Scholar
  76. Pei, J., We, IH., Liu, Z. D., Yu, Y. M., Ni, C. R., & Wu, H. G. (2010). Effects of moxibustion on the expression of IL-1beta, IL-2, IL-6 mRNA and protein in the cerebral cortex in tumor-bearing mice. Acupuncture Research, 35, 243–249.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Peltier, A. C., & Russell, J. W. (2002). Recent advances in drug-induced neuropathies. Current Opinion in Neurology, 15, 633–638.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Polomano, R. C., Mannes, A. J., Clark, U. S., & Bennett, G. J. (2001). A painful peripheral neuropathy in the rat produced by the chemotherapeutic drug, paclitaxel. Pain, 94, 293–304.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Qin, F. H., & Qin, Y. H. (2001). Therapy of pressing and moxibustion in treating 36 cases of pain due to primary liver cancer. Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, 21, 540.Google Scholar
  80. Qiu, X., Chen, K., Tong, L., Shu, X., Lü, X., Wen, H., et al. (2004). Effects of moxibustion at shenque (CV 8) on serum IL-12 level and NK cell activities in mice with transplanted tumor. Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 24, 56–58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Quasthoff, S., & Hartung, H. P. (2002). Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. Journal of Neurology, 249, 9–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Reale, C., Turkiewicz, A. M., & Reale, C. A. (2001). Antalgic treatment of pain associated with bone metastases. Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology, 37, 1–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Salvo, N., Zeng, L., Zhang, L., Leung, M., Khan, L., Presutti, R., et al. (2011). Frequency of reporting and predictive factors for anxiety and depression in patients with advanced cancer. Clinical Oncology (Royal College of Radiologists), 24, 139–148.Google Scholar
  84. Sarkar, D. K., Boyadjieva, N. I., Chen, C. P., Ortigüela, M., Reuhl, K., Clement, E. M., et al. (2008). Cyclic adenosine monophosphate differentiated beta-endorphin neurons promote immune function and prevent prostate cancer growth. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 105, 9105–9110.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Sarkar, D. K., Zhang, C., Murugan, S., Dokur, M., Boyadjieva, N. I., Ortigüela, M., et al. (2011). Transplantation of β-Endorphin Neurons into the Hypothalamus Promotes Immune Function and Restricts the Growth and Metastasis of Mammary Carcinoma. Cancer Research, 71, 6282–6291.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. She, Y. F., Qi, C. H., & Zhu, J. (2010). History and progress of study on electrical properties of acupoints at home and abroad. Zhongguo Zhen Jiu 2010, 30, 1047–1050.Google Scholar
  87. Strang, P. (1998). Cancer pain–a provoker of emotional, social and existential distress. Acta Oncologica, 37, 641–644.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Sun, K., Yang, Y. H., Zhou, Z. L., Yang, J., & Shen, D. K. (2008). Clinical observations on the treatment of primary genual osteoarthritis of liver-kidney depletion type by aconite cake-separated moxibustion. Shanghai J Acupunct Moxibustion, 27, 9–10.Google Scholar
  89. Taspinar, A., & Sirin, A. (2010). Effect of acupressure on chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in gynecologic cancer patients in Turkey. European Journal of Oncology Nursing, 14, 49–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Taylor, D., Meader, N., Bird, V., Pilling, S., Creed, F., Goldberg, D., et al. (2011). Pharmacological interventions for people with depression and chronic physical health problems: Systematic review and meta-analyses of safety and efficacy. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 198, 179–188.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Uryu, N., Okada, K., & Kawakita, K. (2007). Analgesic effects of indirect moxibustion on an experimental rat model of osteoarthritis in the knee. Acupuncture in Medicine, 25, 175–183.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Wakao, K., Matsuzaki, I., Terao, K., Inoue-Murayama, M., Shimojo, N., & Murayama, Y. (2000). Involvement of granzyme B expression in the enhancement of natural killer activity by beta-endorphin. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 14, 27–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Wang, C., Zhou, D. F., Shuai, X. W., Liu, J. X., & Xie, P. Y. (2007). Effects and mechanisms of electroacupuncture at PC6 on frequency of transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation in cats. World Journal of Gastroenterology, 13, 4873–4880.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Wang, J. Y., Xu, L., Zhang, R. X., & Lao, L. (2011). Traditional Chinese medicine for cancer pain. Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao, 9, 129–134.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Wang, W. J., Lu, J., Niu, C. S., Huang, Y. R., Ma, Q., A Y. G., et al. (2010). Effects of electroacupuncture of unilateral and bilateral “zusanli” (ST 36) on serum TNF-alpha, IL-1 and IL-4 levels in rats with chronic inflammatory pain. Acupuncture Research, 35, 429–432.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Wang, Z. H., Zhu, J. Y., Li, T., & Leng, X. S. (2008). Proliferation of CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cells of rat by different cytokines in vitro. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi, 88, 844–847.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Windebank, A. J., & Grisold, W. (2008). Chemotherapy-induced neuropathy. Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System, 13, 27–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Wolf, S., Barton, D., Kottschade, L., Grothey, A., & Loprinzi, C. (2008). Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy: Prevention and treatment strategies. European Journal of Cancer, 44, 1507–1515.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Wong, R., & Sagar, S. (2006). Acupuncture treatment for chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy–a case series. Acupuncture in Medicine, 24, 87–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Wu, B., Zhou, R. X., & Zhou, M. S. (1996). Effect of acupuncture on immunomodulation in patients with malignant tumors. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi, 16, 139–141.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Wu, P., Cao, Y., & Wu, J. (2001). Effects of moxa-cone moxibustion at Guanyuan on erythrocytic immunity and its regulative function in tumor-bearing mice. Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 21, 68–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Yates, J., Rovis, F., Mitchell, P., Afzali, B., Tsang, J. Y., Garin, M., et al. (2007). The maintenance of human CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cell function: IL-2, IL-4, IL-7 and IL-15 preserve optimal suppressive potency in vitro. International Immunology, 19, 785–799.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Ye, F., Chen, S., & Liu, W. (2002). Effects of electro-acupuncture on immune function after chemotherapy in 28 cases. Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 22, 21–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Ye, F., Liu, D., Wang, S., & Xu, L. (2007). Effects of electro-acupuncture on T cell subpopulations, NK activity, humoral immunity and leukocyte count in patients undergoing chemotherapy. Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 27, 19–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Yin, C. S., Jeong, H. S., Park, H. J., Baik, Y., Yoon, M. H., Choi, C. B., et al. (2008). A proposed transpositional acupoint system in a mouse and rat model. Research in Veterinary Science, 84, 159–165.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Yu, Y., Kasahara, T., Sato, T., Asano, K., Yu, G-D., Fang, J-Q., et al. (1998). Role of endogenous interferon-γ on the enhancement of splenic NK cell activity by electroacupuncture stimulation in mice. Journal of Neuroimmunology, 90, 176–186.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Zan, H. M., & Zhang, D. C. (1999). Application of acupuncture in relieving pain of terminal cancer. Hua Bei Mei Tan Yi Xue Yuan Xue Bao, 1, 586–587.Google Scholar
  108. Zhai, D., Chen, H., Wang, R., Hua, X., Ding, B., & Jiang, Y. (1994). Regulation on beta-END in tumor-bearing mice by moxibustion on Guanyuan point. Acupuncture Research, 19, 63–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Zhang, G. G., Yu, C., Lee, W., Lao, L., Ren, K., & Berman, B. M. (2005a). Involvement of peripheral opioid mechanisms in electroacupuncture analgesia. Explore, 1, 365–371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Zhang, Q. R., & Fu, W. B. (2010). Osteoarthritis of knee joint treated with acupuncture and moxibustion. Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, 30, 375–378.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Zhang, R. X., & Lao, L. (2010). Modern Cancer Research on Chinese Medicine: Acupuncture. In W. C. Cho (Ed.), Supportive cancer care with Chinese medicine (pp. 253–270). Heidelberg: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Zhang, R. X., Li, A., Liu, B., Wang, L., Ren, K., Qiao, J. T., et al. (2008a). Electroacupuncture attenuates bone cancer pain and inhibits spinal interleukin-1 beta expression in a rat model. Anesthesia and Analgesia, 105, 1482–1488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Zhang, R. X., Li, A., Liu, B., Wang, L., Xin, J., Ren, K., et al. (2008b). Electroacupuncture attenuates bone-cancer-induced hyperalgesia and inhibits spinal preprodynorphin expression in a rat model. European Journal of Pain, 12, 870–878.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Zhang, R. X., Liu, B., Wang, L., Ren, K., Qiao, J. T., Berman, B. M., et al. (2005b). Spinal glial activation in a new rat model of bone cancer pain produced by prostate cancer cell inoculation of the tibia. Pain, 118, 125–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Zhang, S. Y., & Du, Y. Q. (2011). Effects of warming needle moxibustion on improvement of gastrointestinal and immune function in patients with postoperation of colorectal cancer. Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, 31, 513–517.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Zhang, W., Zhao, G. G., Su, L. Q., Zheng, Li. X., & Zhi-Hong, Y. (2011a). Effect, of acupuncture of different acupoints on immune function in rats with exhausted swimming. Acupuncture Research, 36, 181–186.Google Scholar
  117. Zhang, Y., Li, A., Lao, L., Xin, J., Ren, K., Berman, B. M., et al. (2011b). Rostral ventromedial medulla µ but not κ, opioid receptors are involved in electroacupuncture anti-hyperalgesia in an inflammatory pain rat model. Brain Research, 1395, 38–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Zhang, Z., Wang, C., Gu, G., Li, H., Zhao, H., Wang, K., et al. (2012). The effects of electroacupuncture at the ST36 (Zusanli) acupoint on cancer pain and transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily 1 expression in Walker 256 tumor-bearing rats. Anesthesia & Analgesia, 114, 879–885.Google Scholar
  119. Zhao, C. L., Peng, L. J., Zhang, Z. L., Zhang, T., & Li, H. M. (2010). Effect of acupuncture on the activity of the peripheral blood T lymphocyte subsets and NK cells in patients with colorectal cancer liver metastasis. Zhongguo Zhen jiu, 30, 10–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Zhao, R. H., & Zhu, Y. B. (2009). Observation on therapeutic effect of herb-partitioned moxibustion on fibromyalgia syndrome. Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, 29, 200–202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Zhao, Z. (2008). Neural mechanism underlying acupuncture analgesia. Progress in Neurobiology, 85, 355–375.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Zhong, J., Lin, C., Fang, G., Li, J. J., & Chen, P. (2010). Observation on therapeutic effect of plum-blossom needle combined with medicated thread moxibustion of traditional zhuang nationality medicine on postherpetic neuralgia. Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, 30, 773–776.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Zhou, E. H., Liu, H. R., Wu, H. G., Shi, Y., Wang, X. M., Tan, L. Y., et al. (2009). Suspended moxibustion relieves chronic visceral hyperalgesia via serotonin pathway in the colon. Neuroscience Letters, 451, 144–147.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Zhu, Y. B. C., Zhuo, L. S., & Feng, W. Q. (2009a). Influence of electroacupuncture on hippocampal somatostatin (SS) and SS mRNA expression in chronic stress-induced depression rats. Acupuncture Research, 34, 175–179.Google Scholar
  125. Zhu, Y., Liu, Q. Y., & Zhuo, L. S. (2009b). Influence of electroacupuncture of “Baihui” (GV 20) and “Sanyinjiao” (SP 6) on hippocampal 5-HT and AChE immuno-activity in chronic depression rats. Acupuncture Research, 34, 16–20.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center for Integrative Medicine, School of MedicineUniversity of MarylandBaltimoreUSA

Personalised recommendations