Retention of Stem Cell Properties Post-expansion in Myosphere Culture
Skeletal muscle has a prominent potential to regenerate after repeated trauma due to a pool of stem cells that reside in skeletal muscle. Satellite cells (SCs), as the primary source of this capability, originate in the embryonic dermamyotome and are located between the muscular basal membrane and the sarcolemma of mature adult skeletal muscle and compose the tissue-specific stem cell population. In response to muscle damage, SCs proliferation is triggered and they either differentiate and fuse to form new muscle fibers or alternatively self-renew to maintain the stem cell pool.
To facilitate the use of SCs in clinical scenarios, we need to explore the biology of these cells in greater detail. One clear goal is to be able to definitively identify and purify SCs. The myosphere forming assay is robust and reflects the behavior of SCs. Clonal analysis where single cells give rise to myospheres need to be used to follow the self-renewal and multipotency characteristics of SCs. Myosphere formation in combination with other markers of SCs behavior represents the state of the art to follow these cells. Remarkably, myospheres-derived progenitor cells (MDPCs) are not only able to differentiate into mesodermal cell types including the myogenic, adipogenic, osteogenic, cardiacogenic, and hematopoietic lineages, but also possess the potential to break germ layer commitment and differentiate into ectodermal lineages including neuron-like cells under certain conditions.
KeywordsStem Cell Satellite Cell Adult Skeletal Muscle Muscle Stem Cell Resident Stem Cell
- Alessandri G, Pagano S, Bez A, Benetti A, Pozzi S, Iannolo G, Baronio M, Invernici G, Caruso A, Muneretto C, Bisleri G, Parati E (2004) Isolation and culture of human muscle-derived stem cells able to differentiate into myogenic and neurogenic cell lineages. Lancet 364:1872–1883PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Khan AA, Shaik MV, Parveen N, Rajendraprasad A, Aleem MA, Habeeb MA, Srinivas G, Raj TA, Tiwari SK, Kumaresan K, Venkateswarlu J, Pande G, Habibullah CM (2010) Human fetal liver-derived stem cell transplantation as supportive modality in the management of end-stage decompensated liver cirrhosis. Cell Transplant 19:409–418PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ogata T, Ueyama T, Nomura T, Asada S, Tagawa M, Nakamura T, Takahashi T, Matsubara H, Oh H (2007) Osteopontin is a myosphere-derived secretory molecule that promotes angiogenic progenitor cell proliferation through the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathway. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 359:341–347PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar