Cancer Stem Cells of the Head and Neck
The initiation and metastasis of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) and other cancers have recently been related to the presence of cancer stem cells (CSC). CSC are cancer initiating, sustaining, and reside mostly quiescently in the tumor. Specific markers and stemness-related genes that characterize putative HNSCC-CSC have been identified. Compared to the bulk tumor mass, CSC are less sensitive to chemo- and radiotherapy and may also have low immunogenicity. Therapeutic targeting of CSC may improve clinical outcome of HNSCC which has two distinct etiologies: infection of epithelial stem cells by high-risk types of the human papillomavirus, or long-term tobacco and alcohol abuse. Recent knowledge on the role of CSC in HNSCC is reviewed and where necessary parallels to CSC of other origin are drawn to give a more comprehensive picture.
KeywordsCancer Stem Cell Reactive Oxygen Species Level Normal Stem Cell Cancer Stem Cell Marker Tissue Stem Cell
- Chen YC, Chang CJ, Hsu HS, Chen YW, Tai LK, Tseng LM, Chiou GY, Chang SC, Kao SY, Chiou SH et al (2009a) Inhibition of tumorigenicity and enhancement of radiochemosensitivity in head and neck squamous cell cancer-derived ALDH1-positive cells by knockdown of Bmi-1. Oral Oncol 46:158–165PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Costello RT, Mallet F, Gaugler B, Sainty D, Arnoulet C, Gastaut JA, Olive D (2000) Human acute myeloid leukemia CD34+/CD38- progenitor cells have decreased sensitivity to chemotherapy and Fas-induced apoptosis, reduced immunogenicity, and impaired dendritic cell transformation capacities. Cancer Res 60:4403–4411PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kim HM, Haraguchi N, Ishii H, Ohkuma M, Okano M, Mimori K, Eguchi H, Yamamoto H, Nagano H, Sekimoto M et al (2011) Increased CD13 expression reduces reactive oxygen species, promoting survival of liver cancer stem cells via an epithelial-mesenchymal transition-like phenomenon. Ann Surg Oncol 55:661–665Google Scholar
- Riechelmann H, Sauter A, Golze W, Hanft G, Schroen C, Hoermann K, Erhardt T, Gronau S (2008) Phase I trial with the CD44v6-targeting immunoconjugate bivatuzumab mertansine in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Oral Oncol 44:823–829Google Scholar