Multiple Neural Circuits in Value-Based Decision-Making
Valuation is an essential function in decision-making. To understand the nature of the distinct neural systems used in such valuation, we performed monkey single-unit recording experiments and a human fMRI experiment using (1) a perceptual discrimination task with asymmetric reward, and (2) a reward inference task. The results suggest that both the primate and human brain have, at least, two distinct valuation systems: one in the nigro-striatal circuit (the stimulus-based valuation system) and the other in the PFC circuit (the knowledge-based valuation system). We propose that the stimulus-based valuation system calculates values based on the empirical and probabilistic relation between an event and its outcome. The knowledge-based valuation system generates values by further extension of directly-experienced association through categorical processes and rules, thereby enabling animals to predict the outcome of an inexperienced event.
KeywordsMotion Stimulus Large Reward Reward Condition Reward Prediction Perceptual Decision
Our research was supported by the twenty-first Century Center of Excellence (COE) program (Integrative Human Science Program, Tamagawa University) and the global COE program (Origins of the Social Mind, Tamagawa University) from the Japan Society for Promotion of Science (JSPS), and Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Priority areas from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan.
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