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Introduction to Purinergic Signalling in the Brain

Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB,volume 986)

Abstract

ATP is a cotransmitter with glutamate, noradrenaline, GABA, acetylcholine and dopamine in the brain. There is a widespread presence of both adenosine (P1) and P2 nucleotide receptors in the brain on both neurons and glial cells. Adenosine receptors play a major role in presynaptic neuromodulation, while P2X ionotropic receptors are involved in fast synaptic transmission and synaptic plasticity. P2Y G protein-coupled receptors are largely involved in presynaptic activities, as well as mediating long-term (trophic) signalling in cell proliferation, differentiation and death during development and regeneration. Both P1 and P2 receptors participate in neuron-glial interactions. Purinergic signalling is involved in control of cerebral vascular tone and remodelling and has been implicated in learning and memory, locomotor and feeding behaviour and sleep. There is increasing interest in the involvement of purinergic signalling in the pathophysiology of the CNS, including trauma, ischaemia, epilepsy, neurodegenerative diseases, neuropsychiatric and mood disorders, and cancer, including gliomas.

Keywords

  • ATP
  • Adenosine
  • Purinoceptors
  • Cotransmission
  • Neuromodulation
  • Glia
  • Neuron-gial interactions
  • Trophic signalling
  • Memory
  • Sleep
  • Neurodegenerative diseases
  • Gliomas

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Fig. 1.1
Fig. 1.2

Abbreviations

ACh:

Acetylcholine

ADP:

Adenosine diphosphate

ATP:

Adenosine 5′-triphosphate

bFGF:

Basic fibroblast growth factor

CNS:

Central nervous system

CREB:

cAMP response element-binding protein

E-NPPs:

Ecto-nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterases

E-NTPDases:

Ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase

GABA:

γ-Amino butyric acid

IL-6:

Interleukin-6

NA:

Noradrenaline

UDP:

Uridine diphosphate

UTP:

Uridine 5′-triphosphate

TMZ:

Temozolomide

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Burnstock, G. (2013). Introduction to Purinergic Signalling in the Brain. In: Barańska, J. (eds) Glioma Signaling. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, vol 986. Springer, Dordrecht. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-4719-7_1

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