Advertisement

Historic Mortars with Burned Alum Shale as an Artificial Pozzolan

  • Sölve Johansson
  • Jan Erik Lindqvist
Conference paper
Part of the RILEM Bookseries book series (RILEM, volume 7)

Abstract

From the mid-eighteenth century extensive research in Sweden and in present day Finland focused on the development of mortars with hydraulic properties, the results mainly published by the Royal Swedish Academy of Science. The aim was to replace imported Italian pozzolan and Dutch trass with a pozzolan produced in Sweden. Several products based on burned alum shale were developed. Cambrian alum shales with a high content of bitumen were fired without additional fuel to produce pozzolanic shale ash. The bituminous alum shale was used directly as a fuel in the lime burning process from the late eighteenth century. The alum shale mortars have a red-brown colour due to the high content of iron oxides. The mortars are hard, strong and generally have a good durability, both as masonry mortars and renders. Microscopic analysis shows that often only a skeleton remains of the shale particles and that large parts of the particles are consumed by the pozzolanic reaction. The field of application was initially restricted to structures in contact with water, such as locks in canals and harbours, but conventional building construction was also an early application.

Keywords

Portland Cement Pozzolanic Reaction Cement Clinker Shrinkage Crack Hydraulic Lime 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgement

The XRD analyses were performed by Dr Britt-Marie Stenari, Chalmers, and the analysis of acid soluble components by Peter Nyman, SP, which is kindly acknowledged.

References

  1. 1.
    Gadd, P.A.: Rön och försök med murbruk och ciment-arter. Kungliga Svenska Vetenskapsakad­emiens handlingar XXXI, 189–206 (1770)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Pash, G.E.: Berättelse om de vid Motala ström anställde Murbruksförsök, inlämnade till Götha Canals Direction år 1818 och 1822 års Berättelse om de vid Göta Kanal anställda Murbruksförsök. Jernkontorets annaler Stockholm 1824, 192–296 (1824)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Qwist Andersson, B.: Försök anstäldte på Trass. Kungliga Svenska Vetenskapsakademiens handlingar XXXI, 49–66 (1770)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Qwist Andersson, B.: Försök med Terra Puzzolana och cement. Senare stycket. Kungliga Svenska Vetenskapsakademiens handlingar XXXIII, 120–132 (1772)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Qwist Andersson, B.: Försök med Terra Puzzolana och cement. Kungliga Svenska Vetenskapsakademiens handlingar XXXIII, 28–42 (1772)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Andersson, A., Dahlman, B., Gee, D.G., Snäll, S.: The Scandinavian Alum Shales, Sveriges Geologiska Undersökning Ca 56, 50 pp (1985)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Henningsson, A.: The Romanesque wall painting above the vaults in Fornåsa Church. Examination and developing of a conservation proposal. Documented in GIS. Diploma thesis on CD. University of Applied Science, Cologne (2003)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Feldt, A.C., Modén, E.: Murbruk som källmaterial. Östergötlands museum. Rapport 19:2001, Linköping (2001)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Johansson, S.: Hydraulic lime mortar Its Production and Utilisation in Sweden in Buildings from the Middle Ages until present Time. Göteborg Stud. Conserv. 20, 327 (2007) (In Swedish with summary in English)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Strömbäck, L.: Gustaf Erik Pasch, Göta kanal och bruket av hydrauliskt cement. In: Polhem. Göteborg: Svenska nationalkommittén för teknikhistoria (SNT), 1983. ISSN 0281-2142; 1993 (11), s. 135–143 (1993)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lindqvist, J.E., Sandström, M.: Quantitative analysis of historical mortars using optical microscopy. Mater. Struct. 33, 612–617 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    COM-C1: Assessment of mix proportions in historical mortars using quantitative optical microscopy. RILEM TC-COM: Characterization of old mortars. Mater. Struct. 34, 387–388 (2001)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lindqvist, J.E., Nijland, T., von Konow, T., Wester Plesser, T.S., Nyman, P., Larbi, J., van Hees, R.: Analysis of mortars with additives. Nordtest Technical Report 594 (2006)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Eckel, E.C.: Cement Limes and Plasters. Wiley, New York (1922)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© RILEM 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Byggkonsult Sölve Johansson ABTrollhättanSweden
  2. 2.Swedish Cement and Concrete Research InstituteStockholmSweden

Personalised recommendations