Lime Based Grouts for Strengthening of Historical Masonry Buildings in Slovenia

  • Mojmir Uranjek
  • Vlatko Bosiljkov
  • Roko Žarnić
  • Violeta Bokan Bosiljkov
Conference paper
Part of the RILEM Bookseries book series (RILEM, volume 7)


Most of the historical masonry buildings in Slovenia were built out of local stone or stone and brick with lime-based mortars. An efficient technique for improving the mechanical properties of stone or stone-brick walls is grout injection. In order to evaluate the quality and compatibility of commercially available injection grouts with materials present in historical masonry buildings, several types of hydraulic lime-pozzolana, lime-cement and cement grouts were tested. Chemical, physical and mechanical criteria to select optimal grout mixture for strengthening of historical masonry buildings were proposed, by which tested grouts were classified in three quality classes A, B and C. Only two commercial lime-cement grouts and one cement grout were able to meet the set requirements and were qualified in class B as medium quality grout (one lime-cement grout) or in class C as low quality grouts. Therefore, the design of hydrated lime-based grouts was carried out in continuation of our study, in order to obtain a grout that is highly compatible with the historical masonry in Slovenia. Among available limes, hydrated lime in powdered state and lime putty were used. Ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS), volcanic tuff, and limestone powder were used as mineral additives. It was found that the added combination of limestone powder and supplementary cementitious material (GGBS or tuff) has a beneficial influence on the properties of designed grout compositions.


Ground Granulate Blast Furnace Slag Tensile Split Strength Limestone Powder Hydrated Lime Stone Masonry 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The research was financed by the European Union, European Social Fund through Slovenian Technology Agency TIA. Their contribution is gratefully acknowledged.


  1. 1.
    Kramar, S., Mirtič, B.: Characterisation of historical mortars as a part of conservation – restoration interventions and archaeological post-excavation analyses. Mater. Geoenviron. 56(4), 501–519 (2009)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Zalar, V.: Mineralogical characterization of Roman age renders from Mošnje and Ljubljana (in Slovenian). Undergraduate thesis, University of Ljubljana. Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, Department of Geology, Ljubljana, 136 p (2009)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Penazzi, D., Valluzzi, M.R., Saisi, A., Binda, L., Modena, C.: Repair and strengthening of historic masonry buildings in seismic areas. In: Proceedings of the International Congress on the More than Two Thousand Years in the History of Architecture Safeguarding the Structure of our Architectural Heritage, Bethlehem, Palestine, 2, Sec. 5, Bethlehem, 1–6 (2001)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Collepardi, M.: Degradation and restoration of masonry walls of historical buildings. Mater. Struct. 23, 81–102 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Uranjek, M., Žarnić, R., Bosiljkov, V.: Strengthening of heritage buildings by means of Grout injection-problems and solutions. HMC 2010, Prague, 22–24 September 2010, 769–777 (2010)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    EN 447.: Grout for prestressing tendons- specification for common grout, 5 p (1996)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Van Rickstal, F.: Grout injection of Masonry, scientific approach and modelling. Doctoral Dissertation. Leuven, Katholieke University Leuven, 195 p (2000)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Zatler-Zupančič, B., Mladenovič, A.: Alkali reaction in concrete (in Slovenian). Information ZRMK Ljubljana 312, XXXV, 3 – 4 – 5, Ljubljana, 5 p (1994)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Valuzzi, M. R., Binda, L., Modena, C.: Experimental and analytical studies for the choice of repair techniques applied to historic buildings. Mater. and Struct. June 2002, 35, 285–292Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Miltiadou, A., Kalagri, A., Delinikolas, N.: Design of hydraulic grout and application methodology for stone masonry structures bearing mosaics and mural paintings: the case of the katholikon of Dafni Monastery. In: International Symposium: Studies on Historical Heritage, Antalya, Turkey, 17–21 September 2007, p 649–656. Istanbul, Yildiz Technical University, RCPHH, Istanbul (2007)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    EN 445.: Grout for prestressing tendons – test methods, 12 p (1996)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    EN 446.: Grout for prestressing tendons- Grouting procedures, 8 p (1996)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    SIST EN 196-2:2005.: Methods of testing cement: chemical analysis of cement (2005)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    SIST EN 1015-6: 1999.: Methods of test for mortar for masonry – Part 6: Determination of bulk density of fresh mortar, 9 p (1999)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    SIST EN 1015-10: 2001.: Methods of test for mortar for masonry – Part 10: Determination of dry bulk density of hardened mortar, 7 p (2001)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    SIST EN 1015-11: 2001.: Methods of test for mortar for masonry – Part 11: Determination of flexural and compressive strength of hardened mortar, 12 p (2001)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    SIST EN 12390-6: 2001.: Testing hardened concrete – Part 6: Tensile splitting strength of test specimens, 10 p (2001)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    SIST EN 12390-3: 2002.: Testing hardened concrete – Part 3: Compressive strength of test specimens, 15 p (2002)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    SIST EN 196-6:2010.: Methods of testing cement – Part 6: Determination of fineness (2010)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    JUS B.C1.018.: Pozzolana: Quality and testing methods (in Slovenian) (1959)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    SIST EN 1015-3:2001.: Methods of test for mortar for masonry – Part 3: Determination of consistence of fresh mortar (2001)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© RILEM 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mojmir Uranjek
    • 1
  • Vlatko Bosiljkov
    • 2
  • Roko Žarnić
    • 2
  • Violeta Bokan Bosiljkov
    • 2
  1. 1.Building and Civil Engineering Institute ZRMKLjubljanaSlovenia
  2. 2.Faculty of Civil and Geodetic EngineeringUniversity of LjubljanaLjubljanaSlovenia

Personalised recommendations