The Effect of Relative Humidity on the Performance of Lime-Pozzolan Mortars

  • Ioannis Karatasios
  • Maria Amenta
  • Maria Tziotziou
  • Vassilis Kilikoglou
Conference paper
Part of the RILEM Bookseries book series (RILEM, volume 7)


The development of strength in conservation mortars is of particular significance for new synthesized lime-based mixtures in terms of practical application, performance requirements and renovation cost of built monuments. In this work, the effect of relative humidity (RH%) on the strength characteristics of lime-natural pozzolan mortars was studied in three groups of specimens cured at different humidity conditions (45, 65 and 95 RH%). The development of compressive strength of the specimens was determined at preset time periods, from 7 days to 1 year. At the same time periods, the setting products and the microstructure of the mortars were monitored by thermal analysis (DTA/TG) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM/EDX). The results highlight the beneficial effect of elevated humidity on the strength of lime-pozzolan mortars and at the same time some issues related to the reliability and reproducibility of laboratory work in the field are addressed.


Compressive Strength Hydrated Product Calcium Silicate Hydrate Strength Development Calcium Aluminate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Cerny, R., Kunca, A., Vr, T., et al.: Effect of pozzolanic admixtures on mechanical, thermal and hygric properties of lime plasters. Constr. Build. Mater. 20, 849–857 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Baronio, G., Binda, L.: Study of the pozzolanicity of some bricks and clays. Constr. Build. Mater. 11, 41–46 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    EN 1015-3.: Methods of test for mortar for masonry – Part 3: Determination of consistence of fresh mortar (by flow table), European Committee for Standardization (1999)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    EN 169-1.: Methods of testing cement – Part 1: Determination of strength, European Committee for Standardization (1995)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Antiohos, S., Tsimas, S.: Activation of fly ash cementitious systems in the presence of quicklime. Part I: Compressive strength and pozzolanic reaction rate. Cem. Concr. Res. 34, 769–779 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Fortes-Revilla, C., Martinez-Ramirez, S., Blanco-Varela, M.T.: Modelling of slaked lime-metakaolin mortar engineering characteristics in terms of process variables. Cem. Concr. Compos. 28, 458–467 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chen, J.J., Thomas, J.J., Taylor, H.F.W., et al.: Solubility and structure of calcium silicate hydrate. Cem. Concr. Res. 34, 1499–1519 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ramachandran, V.S.: Thermal analyses of cement components hydrated in the presence of calcium carbonate. Thermochim. Acta 127, 385–394 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Moropoulou, A., Bakolas, A., Aggelakopoulou, E.: Evaluation of pozzolanic activity of natural and artificial pozzolans by thermal analysis. Thermochim. Acta 420, 135–140 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    He, C., Osbaeck, B., Makovicky, E.: Pozzolanic reactions of six principal clay minerals: activation, reactivity assessments and technological effects. Cem. Concr. Res. 25, 1691–1702 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bakolas, A., Biscontin, G., Moropoulou, A., Zendri, E.: Characterization of structural byzantine mortars by thermogravimetric analysis. Thermochim. Acta 321, 151–160 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    EN 1015-18.: Methods of test for mortar for masonry – Part 18: Determination of water absorption coefficient due to capillary action of hardened mortar. European Committee for Standardization (2002)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ambroise, J., Maximilien, S., Pera, J.: Properties of metakaolin blended cements. Adv. Cem. Based Mater. 4, 161–168 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Cazalla, O., Rodriguez-Navarro, C., Sebastian, E., Cultrone, G., De la Torre, M.J.: Aging of lime putty: effects on traditional lime mortar carbonation. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 83, 1070–1076 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Basumajumdar, A., Das, A.K., Bandyopadhyay, N., et al.: Some studies on the reaction between fly ash and lime. Bull. Mater. Sci. 28, 131–136 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Day, R.L., Shi, C.: Influence of the fineness of pozzolan on the strength of lime natural-pozzolan cement pastes. Cem. Concr. Res. 24, 1485–1491 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Paiva, H., Esteves, L.P., Cachim, P.B., et al.: Rheology and hardened properties of single-coat render mortars with different types of water retaining agents. Constr. Build. Mater. 23, 1141–1146 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© RILEM 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ioannis Karatasios
    • 1
  • Maria Amenta
    • 1
  • Maria Tziotziou
    • 1
  • Vassilis Kilikoglou
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Archaeological Materials, Institute of Materials ScienceNational Centre for Scientific Research “Demokritos”AthensGreece

Personalised recommendations