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Liposomes and Other Nanoparticles as Cancer Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics

  • Joseph G. AltinEmail author
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Abstract

The uptake, processing and presentation of antigen by antigen presenting cells (APCs) such as macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) plays a crucial role in the development of vaccines and immunotherapies against infectious diseases and cancer. Liposomes are nanoparticles composed of lipids/phospholipids that can be produced to exhibit properties mimicking those seen in pathogens; thus empowering liposomes with an inherent adjuvant activity and an ability to induce both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. In addition to their adjuvanticity, liposomes can deliver to APCs large amounts of antigen, and immunostimulatory factors; they can readily incorporate “danger” or DC maturation signals, and be surface-modified to promote their active targeting to specific receptors on cells. Liposomes can also encapsulate or form complexes (lipoplexes) with plasmid DNA and small interfering RNA, enabling targeting of these nucleic acids directly to APCs as a DNA vaccine or to enhance immune responses. Since liposomes can be readily manipulated, are biocompatible and biodegradable, and are efficacious with a good record of safety, they clearly exhibit the attributes of potent arsenals for manipulating immune function and for developing more effective cancer vaccines and immunotherapies.

Keywords

Liposomes Nanoparticles Adjuvants Dendritic cells Antigen ­presenting cells Targeted delivery DNA vaccine Immunity 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by Project Grants from the NHMRC of Australia (Number 316949) and from the ACT Cancer Society (App1028722). The author is grateful for the input of collaborators including Prof. Christopher R. Parish (JCSMR, ANU) and research students now Drs Thomas P. Herringson and Abdus Faham, for their contribution to the original research that led to the author’s work described in this review.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Biomedical Science and Biochemistry, Research School of Biology, ANU College of Medicine, Biology and EnvironmentThe Australian National UniversityCanberraAustralia

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