Pediatric Embryonal Tumors: Prognostic Role of Cyclin A and B1 Proteins
Embryonal brain tumors account for 20–25% of all brain neoplasms in children and represent the second most frequent group of pediatric brain tumors. Embryonal tumors include medulloblastoma, atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor and supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor. These tumors are highly malignant and there is a significant long-term treatment related morbidity. Various biologic parameters have been related to outcome. Cyclins are a group of proteins which are periodically synthesized and degraded during the cell cycle. They affect progression in the cell cycle through activation of cyclin–dependent kinases forming heterodimers. This review focus on the prognostic role of the mytotic cyclins, namely cyclins A and B1, in pediatric embryonal tumors. Based on recent evidence there is a significant expression of cyclin A and cyclin B1 in embryonal tumors, whereas the expression patterns of these cyclins correlate with patient’s prognosis.
KeywordsEsophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Pediatric Brain Tumor Embryonal Tumor Mitotic Cyclins Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor
- de Haas T, Hasselt N, Troost D, Caron H, Popovic M, Zadravec-Zaletel L, Grajkowska W, Perek M, Osterheld MC, Ellison D, Baas F, Versteeg R, Kool M (2008) Molecular risk stratification of medulloblastoma patients based onimmunohistochemical analysis of MYC, LDHB, and CCNB1 expression. Clin Cancer Res 14:4154–4160PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ellison DW, Kocak M, Dalton J, Megahed H, Lusher ME, Ryan SL, Zhao W, Nicholson SL, Taylor RE, Bailey S, Clifford SC (2010) Definition of disease-risk stratification groups in childhood medulloblastoma using combined clinical, pathologic, and molecular variables. J Clin Oncol 29:1400–1407PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hoffmann TK, Trellakis S, Okulicz K, Schuler P, Greve J, Arnolds J, Bergmann C, Bas M, Lang S, Lehnerdt G, Brandau S, Mattheis S, Scheckenbach K, Finn OJ, Whiteside TL, Sonkoly E (2011) Cyclin B1 expression and p53 status in squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck. Anticancer Res 31:3151–3157PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mendrzyk F, Radlwimmer B, Joos S, Kokocinski F, Benner A, Stange DE, Neben K, Fiegler H, Carter NP, Reifenberger G, Korshunov A, Lichter P (2005) Genomic and protein expression profiling identifies CDK6 as novel independent prognostic marker in medulloblastoma. J Clin Oncol 23:8853–8862PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar