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Pesticides and Sustainable Agriculture

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Farming for Food and Water Security

Part of the book series: Sustainable Agriculture Reviews ((SARV,volume 10))

Abstract

The global perspective of this review is to present, in a particular way, many dimensions related to the use of pesticides and sustainable development in agriculture. Worldwide increasing use of pesticides induces high and very variable environmental pressures depending on the countries, their major crops and pesticide needs and the types of management of cropping systems. As an example, in 2003, the global market for pesticides by worldwide regions was the following: European Union: 28%; North America: 25%; South America: 18%; Asia and Africa: 30%. Between 1993 and 1998, the growth rate for synthetic chemical pesticides was: Latin America: 5.4%; Africa/Middle East: 5.1%; Western Europe: 4.6%; Eastern Europe: 4.4%; Asia/Oceania: 4.4%; North America: 4.0%. Mitigation procedures to minimize the environmental pressures due to the growing use of pesticides must use one or many elements of crop management strategies. These management strategies must be adapted to the specific combination of crops and pesticides. In 1997, at a global scale, the sales, in percentage of the total markets in billions of dollars, of some of the major crops were: fruits/nuts/vegetables: 21.0%; home/garden/ornamentals: 17%; cereals: 12.9%; maize: 8.1%; rice: 8.1%. At the same time, the sales for the main pesticides chemical groups were: herbicides: 47.6%; insecticides: 29.4%; fungicides: 17.5%. The reduction of pesticide losses in surface water is essential to limit toxicological concerns and the adverse effects of pesticides on natural organisms and human health. Also, the development and application of new biopesticides and transgenic crops, which could be tolerant to herbicides and killing weeds or resistant to insects, should be considered in sustainable development. The market for various biopesticides and transgenic crops was expected to expand by over 20% between 2000 and 2005. Despite their interest, they may be a source of unplanned social and environmental issues related to the ecology of crops, insect or plant resistance, and use of more efficient and toxic chemical pesticides. Water and wastewater treatment plants may also be used to alleviate the negative impacts, mainly on human health, of water contaminated by pesticides.

We reviewed four of the major goals linked to pesticides and sustainable development in agriculture. These goals are (i) Production, markets and worldwide uses of pesticides, including biopesticides and genetically modified crops, (ii) Rejection of pesticides in the environment and mitigation procedures, (iii) Impacts of pesticides in the environment and human health concerns, and (iv) Management and treatment of water contaminated by pesticides. The major advances and trends for these goals are the following. Production and use of pesticides will increase with the worldwide demographic evolution. Establishing a long-term tendency of the needs for synthetic chemical pesticides at a global scale may be hazardous, but by using demographic tendency, it is expected that in 2050 the world will need 70% more food than in 2010, especially in Africa, India and Asia. A significant growth of chemical pesticides use is unavoidable. The last 20-year period was characterized by the use of various types of biopesticides and genetically modified crops, namely plant-pesticides resistance to insects, i.e. Bacillus thuringiensis pesticidal protein or Bt crops, and herbicide-tolerant plants. This was a pivotal step in the development of modern agriculture and it induces a tremendous change in the use of pesticides by converting growers to intensive production of major crops. The next 20 years are expected to see a substantial increase in the use of genetically modified plants. This should contribute to the implementation of integrated pest management systems such as no-tillage practices in order to minimize the contamination of water by pesticides. Genetically modified plants can actually reduce some of the harmful side effects of insecticides. However, actual observations made until 2010 suggest that the rapid diffusion of genetically modified Bacillus thuringiensis-based crops will lead to pest resistance. A similar problem occurs with some herbicide-tolerant crops, i.e. for glyphosate. The spreading of these crops could result in the transfer of their genetic qualities to weeds, creating new generations of weed-resistance to herbicides and thus reduce crop yields. These paradoxes will possibly change the market of pesticides as well as the contamination of waters. Adapted management approaches will be needed in order to preserve the soil quality, integrity of eco-agrosystems and human health. Management and mitigation strategies to minimize pesticide losses in the environment will have to be more efficient in all countries no matter their development status. Human health, much rarely addressed, would probably be recognized as a key component in sustainable development. Efficient treatments are needed to remove pesticides from waters. Conventional methods such as chlorination have shown inefficiency to fully oxidize pesticides. Alternative methods such as the combination of ozone and hydrogen peroxide are more reliable to eliminate pesticides. The use of powdered activated carbon can be efficient for punctual contamination of raw water. The integration of a double layer filtration unit, such as granular activated carbon and sand filtration can constitute an interesting alternative method to remove pesticides in existing drinking water treatment plants. Advanced electrolytic-oxidation techniques are promising treatments to remove pesticides from waters.

Patrick Drogui is a professor at INRS-ETE. His research activities are focused on the development of innovative technologies for environmental applications, mainly to remove persistent organic pollutants from waters and wastewaters by using electro-technology and oxidative processes.

Pierre Lafrance is a professor at INRS-ETE. His research activities aim at understanding the mechanisms responsible for the contamination of surface and groundwater by agricultural pesticides. His studies include the evaluation of the impacts of various agricultural practices on the losses of pesticides into surface and groundwater.

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Drogui, P., Lafrance, P. (2012). Pesticides and Sustainable Agriculture. In: Lichtfouse, E. (eds) Farming for Food and Water Security. Sustainable Agriculture Reviews, vol 10. Springer, Dordrecht. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-4500-1_2

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