North China and Tarim Cratonic Blocks

  • Franco Pirajno


In this chapter the Archaean and Palaeoproteroic geology and geodynamic evolution of the North China Craton and the Tarim Craton are described, from published literature. The North China Craton consists of a Western Block and an Eastern Block, separated by the north-trending Trans-North China Orogen, which developed through a series of subduction-related systems that were eventually accreted onto the Western and Eastern Blocks, resulting in the final amalgamation of the North China Craton at about 1.8 Ga. There are still conflicting ideas regarding the geological history of the Trans-North China Orogen. Dyke swarms, anorogenic magmatism and rifting processes are also recorded from about 2.5 Ga. Mineral systems that occur in the North China Craton can be divided into those that formed during the geological history of the Craton, such as podiform chromite and Fe-Ti-V deposits in mafic-ultramafic rocks and massif-type anorthosite intrusions, banded iron-formation (BIF) hosted Fe deposits and volcanogenic massive sulphide deposits (VMS). BIF include both Algoma-type and Superior type. Various types of mineral deposits were formed during Palaeoproterozoic rifting processes and igneous activity that affected the Craton. One of these is the giant Bayan Obo rare earth deposit in Inner Mongolia, developed in a Palaeoproterozoic rift, but through a series of multistage episodes involving carbonatite magmas. To the same period also belong unusual and somewhat enigmatis massive sulphide deposits, considered as transitional submarine to Irish-type. A wide range of hydrothermal deposits, including the Jiaodong lode Au deposits, porphyry and porphyry-skarn were formed during phases of collision tectonic between the North China Craton and the Mongolia-Siberian plate in the Permian-Triassic and during the widespread Mesozoic Yanshanian tectono-thermal event. The Yanshanian event is probably the most productive in terms of mineral systems and is considered by most authors to be related to delamination of the lithospheric mantle, resulting in magmatic underplating, crustal melting and the development of A- and I-type granitic magmas and volcanism along the east Asian margin in rift structures. Giant and world-class mineral systems, all formed during the Yanshanian in eastern China.

The Tarim Craton, commonly called Block or Basin, regardless of whether the topic in question is basement or cover rocks, is poorly known, mainly due to its extensive cover of Phanerozoic sedimentary and volcanic successions. The Tarim Craton was amalgamated with the North China and Yangtze Cratons during the Phanerozoic, probably following the assembly of Pangea and the closure of the Palaeo-Tethys Ocean. Most of the cratonic lithostratigraphy is known from deep drilling and from exposures along its margins. Mineralisation that can be ascribed to the Tarim Craton include Ni-Cu sulphides and the potential exists for carbonatite-hosted rare earth deposits.


North China Craton Mantle Plume Greenstone Belt Mafic Dyke Volcanogenic Massive Sulphide 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Barry TL, Kent RW (1998) Cenozoic magmatism in Mongolia and the origin of central and East Asian basalts. Geodynamics 27:347–364Google Scholar
  2. Barry TL, Saunders AD, Kempton PD, Windley BF, Pringle MS, Dorjnamjiaa D, Saandar S (2003) Petrogenesis of Cenozoic basalts from Mongolia: evidence for the role of asthenopsheric versus metasomatised lithospheric mantle sources. J Pet 44:55–91Google Scholar
  3. Bekker A, Slack JF, Planavsky N, Krapez B, Hofmann A, Konhauser KO, Rouxe, OJ (2010) Iron formation: the sedimentary product of a complex interplay among mantle, tectonic, oceanic, and biosphere processes. Econ Geol 105:467–508Google Scholar
  4. Boyce AJ, Little CTS, Russell MJ (2003) A new fossil vent biota in the Ballynoe barite deposit, Silvermines, Ireland: evidence for intracratonic sea-floor hydrothermal activity about 352 Ma. Econ Geol 98:649–656Google Scholar
  5. Chao ECT, Back JM, Minkin JA, Tatsumoto M, Wang JW, Conrad JE, McKee EH, Hou ZL, Meng QR, Huang SG (1997) The sedimentary carbonate-hosted giant Bayan Obo REE-Fe-Nb ore deposit of Inner Mongolia, China: a cornerstone example for giant polymetallic ore deposits of hydrothermal origin. USGS Bull 2143Google Scholar
  6. Chen YJ, Zhao YC (1997) Geochemical characteristics and evolution of REE in the early Precambrian sediments: evidence from the southern margin of the North China Craton. Episodes 20:109–116Google Scholar
  7. Chen YJ, Li C, Zhang J, Li Z, Wang HH (2000) Sr and O isotopic characteristics of porphyries in the Qinling molybdenum deposit belt and their implication to genetic mechanism and type. Sci China Ser D 43(Suppl):82–94Google Scholar
  8. Chen S, O’Reilly SY, Zhou XH, Griffin WL, Zhang G, Sun M, Feng J, Zhang M (2001) Thermal and petrological structure of the lithosphere beneath Hannuoba, Sino-Korean Craton, China: evidence from exnoliths. Lithos 56:267–301Google Scholar
  9. Chen Y, Xu B, Zhan C, Li Y (2004) First mid-Neoproterozoic palaeomagnetic results from the Tarim Basin (NW China) and their geodynamic implications. Precambrian Res 133:271–281Google Scholar
  10. Chen YJ, Pirajno F, Qi JP (2005) Origin of gold metallogeny and sources of ore-forming fluids, Jiadong Province, eastern China. Int Geol Rev 47:530–549Google Scholar
  11. Cheng YQ, Zhao YM, Li WW (1995) Iron deposits of China, in mineral deposits of China, Editorial Committee of Mineral Deposits, China, vol 2. Geol Publ House, Beijing, pp 28–36Google Scholar
  12. Cook NJ, Ciobanu CL, Mao JW (2009) Textural control on gold distribution in As-free pyrite from the Dongping, Huangtuliang and Hougou gold deposits, North China Craton (Hebei Province, China). Chem Geol 264:101–121Google Scholar
  13. Clout JMF, Simonson BM (2005) Preacambrian iron formations and iron formation-hosted iron ore deposits. Econ Geol 100th Anniv Vol:643–649Google Scholar
  14. Cope TD, Graham SA (2007) Upper-crustal response to Mesozoic tectonism in Western Liaoning, North China, and implications for lithospheric delamination. Geological Society, London, Sp Publ 280,pp 201–222Google Scholar
  15. Cui ML, Zhang BL, Zhang LC (2011) Baddeleyite/Zircon U-Pb dating for the Shizhaigou diorite in Southern margin of North China Craton: constrains on the timing and tectonic setting of the Paleoproterozoic Xiong’er group. Gondwana Res 20(1):184–193Google Scholar
  16. Dai JZ, Mao JW, Xie GQ, Yang FQ, Wang YT, Zhao CS (2009) U-Pb, Re-Os dating and geodynamic setting of the Xiaojiayingzi Mo (Fe) deposit, western Liaoning province, China. Ore Geol Rev 35:235–244Google Scholar
  17. Drew LJ, Meng Q, Sun W (1990) The Bayan Obo iron-rare earth-niobium deposits, Inner Mongolia, China. Lithos 26:43–65Google Scholar
  18. Fan HR, Zhai MG, Xie YH, Yang JH (2003) Ore-forming fluids associated with granite-hosted gold mineralisation at the Sanshandao deposit, Jiaodong gold province. Miner Depos 38:739–750Google Scholar
  19. Fan HR, Xie YH, Wang KY, Tao KJ, Wilde SA (2004a) REE daughter minerals trapped in fluid inclusions in the giant Bayan Obo REE-Nb-Fe deposit, Inner Mongolia, China. Int Geol Rev 46:638–645Google Scholar
  20. Fan HR, Xie YH, Wang KY, Wilde SA (2004b) Methane-rich fluid inclusions in skarn near the giant REE-Nb-Fe deposit at Bayan Obo, northern China. Ore Geol Rev 25:301–309Google Scholar
  21. Fan HR, Hu FF, Xie YH (2005) Aqueous-carbonic-REE fluids in the giant Bayan Obo deposit, China: implications for REE mineralization. In: Mao JW, Bierlein FP (eds) Mineral deposit research: meeting the global challenge, Proceedings of the Eigth Bienn SGA Meeting, Beijing China, 2:945–948Google Scholar
  22. Fan HR, Hu FF, Yang JH, Zha MG (2007) Fluid association and large-scale gold metallogeny during Mesozoic tectonic transition in the Jiadong peninsula, eastern China. Geol Soc, London, Sp Publ 280:303–316Google Scholar
  23. Faure G (1986) Principles of isotope geology, 2nd edn. Wiley, New York, p 589Google Scholar
  24. Frost BR, Mavrogenes JA, Tomkins AG (2002) Partial melting of sulfide ore deposits during medium- and high-grade metamorphism. Can Miner 40:1–18Google Scholar
  25. Furnes H, Witt M de, Staudigel H, Rosing M, Muehlenbachs K (2007) A vestige of Earth’s oldest ophiolite. Science 315:1704–1707Google Scholar
  26. Gan SF, Qiu YM, Yang HY, Reenen DD van (1994) The Hadamengou Mine: a typical gold deposit in the Archean Granulite Facies Terrane of the North China Craton. Inter Geol Rev 36:850–866Google Scholar
  27. Glass L, Phillips D (2006) The Kalkarindji continental flood basalt province: a new Cambrian large igneous province in Australia, with possible links to faunal extinction. Geology 34:461–446Google Scholar
  28. Goldfarb RJ, Hart C, Davis G, Groves DI (2007) East Asian gold: deciphering the anomaly of Phanerozoic gold in Precambrian Cratons. Econ Geol 102:341–345Google Scholar
  29. Griffin WL, Andi Z, O’Reilly SY, Ryan CG (1998) Phanerozoic evolution of the lithosphere beneath the Sino-Korean Craton. In: Flower M, Chung SL, Lo CH, Lee TY (eds) Mantle dynamics and plate interactions in East Asia. American Geophysical Union, Monogr 27, pp 107–126Google Scholar
  30. Gu LX, Zheng YC, Tang XQ, Zaw K, Della-Pasque F, Wu CZ, Tian Z, Lu JJ, Ni P, Li X, Yang FT, Wang XW (2007) Copper, gold and silver enrichment in ore mylonites within massive sulphide orebodies at Hongtoushan VHMS deposit, N. E. China. Ore Geol Rev 30:1–29Google Scholar
  31. Guo ZJ, Yin A, Robinson A, Jia CZ (2005) Geochronology and geochemistry of deep-drill core samples from the basement of the central Tarim Basin. J Asian Earth Sci 25:45–56Google Scholar
  32. Han CM, Xiao WJ, Zhao GC, Sun M, Qu WJ, Du AD (2009) A Re-Os study of molybdenites from the Lanjiagou Mo deposit of North China Craton and its geological significance. Gondwana Res 16:264–271Google Scholar
  33. Hart CJR, Goldfarb RJ, Qiu YM, Snee L, Miller LD, Miller ML (2002) Gold deposits of the northern margin of the North China Craton: multiple late Paleozoic-Mesozoic mineralizing events. Miner Depos 37:326–351Google Scholar
  34. Hsü KJ (1988) Relict back-arc basins: principles of recognition and possible new examples from China. In: Kleinspehn KL, Paola C (eds) New perspectives in basin analysis. Springer, New York, pp 245–263Google Scholar
  35. Hu SX, Zhao YY, Xu B, Lu B, Ji HZ, Ye Y (1997) Evidence for the Jiangsu-Shandong ultra-high-pressure metamorphic belt returns from the upper mantle to the earth surface in the Mesozoic-Cenozoic. Acta Geol Sin 71:245–253 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  36. Hu HB, Mao JW, Liu DY, Niu SY, Wang YB, Li YF, Shi RR (2005) SHRIMP zircon U-Pb dating of the Tongshi magmatic complex in western Shandong and its implication. Acta Geol Sin 79:401–406Google Scholar
  37. Hu HB, Mao JW, Niu SY, Li YF, Li MW (2006) Geology and geochemistry of telluride-bearing Au deposits in the Pingui area, Western Shadong, China. Miner Pet 87:209–240Google Scholar
  38. Huang DH, Dong QY, Gan ZX (1990) Molybdenum deposits of China, in mineral deposits of China, Editorial Committee of Mineral Deposits, China, vol 1. Geol Publ House, Beijing, pp 288–355Google Scholar
  39. Huang XN, Li JH, Kusky TM, Chen Z (2004) Microstructures of the Zunhua 2.50 Ga podiform chromite, North China Craton and implications for the deformation and rheology of the Archean oceanic lithospheric mantle. In: Kusky TM (ed) Precambrian ophiolites and related rocks, vol 13. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 321–337Google Scholar
  40. Huang XL, Niu YL, Xu YG, Yang QJ, Zhong JW (2010) Geochemistry of TTG and TTG-like gneisses from Lushan-Taihua complex in the southern North China Craton: implications for late Archean crustal accretion. Precambrian Res 182(1–2):43–56Google Scholar
  41. Huston DL, Logan GA (2004) Barite, BIFs and bugs: evidence for the evolution of the Earth’s early hydrosphere. Earth Planet Sci Lett 220:41–55Google Scholar
  42. Jia CZ, Yao H, Wei G, Li L (1991) Plate tectonic evolution and characteristics of major tectonic units of the Tarim Basin. In: Tong X, Liang D (eds) The Tarim Basin. Xinjiang Scientific Publishing House, Urumqi, pp 207–225 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  43. Kusky TM (ed) (2004) Precambrian ophiolites and related rocks. Developments in Precambrian geology, vol 13. Elsevier, Amsterdam, p 727Google Scholar
  44. Kusky TM (2011) Geophysical and geological tectonic models of the North China Craton. Gondwana Res 20:26–35Google Scholar
  45. Kusky TM, Li JH (2003) Paleoproterozoic tectonic evolution of the North China Craton. J Asian Earth Sci 22:383–397Google Scholar
  46. Kusky TM, Santosh M (2009) The Columbia connection in North China. Geological Society, London, Sp Publ 323, pp 49–71Google Scholar
  47. Kusky TM, Li JH, Tucker RD (2001) The Archean Dongwanzi ophiolite complex, North China Craton: 2.505 billion-year-old oceanic crust and mantle. Science 292:1142–1145Google Scholar
  48. Kusky TM, Li JH, Glass A, Huang XN (2004) Origin and emaplacement of Archean ophiolites of the Central Orogenic Belt, North China Craton. In: Kusky TM (ed) Precambrian ophiolites and related rocks, vol 13: developments in Precambrian geology. Amsterdam, Elsevier, pp 223–274Google Scholar
  49. Kusky TM, Windley BF, Zhai MG (2007) Tectonic evolution of the North China Block: from orogen to craton to orogen. Geological Society, London, Sp Publ 280, pp 1–34Google Scholar
  50. Le Bas MJ, Yang XM, Taylor RN, Spiro B, Milton JA, Peishan Z (2007) New evidence from a calcite-dolomite carbonatite dyke for the magmatic origin of the massive Bayan Obo ore-bearing dolomite marble, Inner Mongolia, China. Miner Pet 91:281–307Google Scholar
  51. Li JH, Kusky TM (2007) World’s largest known Precambrian fossil black smoker chimneys and associated microbial vent communities, North China: implications for early life. Gondwana Res 12:84–100Google Scholar
  52. Li ZX, Powell CMcA (2001) An outline of the paleogeographic evolution of the Australasian region since the beginning of the Neoproterozoic. Earth Sci Rev 53:237–277Google Scholar
  53. Li JJ, Shen BF, Li SB, Mao DB (1995) The geology and gold mineralisation of the greenstone belts in Qingyuan-Jiaopigou region, China. Tianjin Science and Technology Press, Tianjin, p 132Google Scholar
  54. Li DS, Liang DG, Jia CZ, Wang G, Wu QH, He DF (1996) Hydrocarbon accumulations in the Tarim Basin, China. AAPG Bull 80:1587–1603Google Scholar
  55. Li JH, Kusky TM, Huang XN (2002) Archean podiform chromitites and mantle tectonites in ophiolitic melange, North China Craton: a record of early oceanic mantle processes. GSA Today 12:4–11Google Scholar
  56. Li ZX, Li XH, Kinny PD, Wang J, Zhang S, Zhou H (2003a) Geochronology of Neoproterozoic syn-rift magmatims in the Yangtze Craton, South China and correlation with other continents: evidence for a mantle superplume that broke up Rodinia. Precambrian Res 122:85–109Google Scholar
  57. Li JW, Vasconcelos PM, Zhang J, Zhou MF, Zhang XJ, Yang FH (2003b) 40Ar/39Ar constraints on a temporal link between gold mineralization, magmatism and continental margin transtension in the Jiadong gold province, Eastern China. J Geol 111:741–751Google Scholar
  58. Li JH, Kusky TM, Niu XL, Jun F, Polat A (2004) Neoarchean massive sulfide of Wutai mountain, North China: a black smoker chimney and mound complex within 2.50 Ga old oceanic crust. In: Kusky TM (ed) Precambrian ophiolites and related rocks, vol 13, Developments in Precambrian geology. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 339–362Google Scholar
  59. Li ZX, Bogdanova SV, Collins AS, Davidson A, De Waele B, Ernst RE, Fitzsimons ICW, Fuck RA, Gladkochub DP, Jacobs J, Karlstrom KE, Lu S, Natapov LM, Pease V, Pisarevsky SA, Thrane K, Vernikovskiy V (2008) Assembly, configuration, and break-up history of Rodinia: a synthesis. Precambr Res 160:179–210Google Scholar
  60. Li TS, Zhai MG, Peng P, Chen L, Guo JG (2010) Ca. 2.5 billion year old coeval ultramafic-mafic and syenitic dykes in eastern Hebei: implications for cratonization of the North China Craton. Precambrian Res 180(3–4):143–155Google Scholar
  61. Li N, Chen YJ, Santosh M, Yao JM, Sun YL, Li J (2011) Recognition of 1.85 Ga molybdenum mineralization in the Xiong’er terrane, China: re-Os ages and implications for metallogeny associated with Columbia Supercontinent assembly. Precambrian Res 186(1–4):220–232Google Scholar
  62. Li WB, Zhong R, Xu C, Song B, Qu WJ (2012) U-Pb, Re-Os geochronology of the Bainaimiao Cu-Mo-Au deposit in the North China Craton, Central Asia Orogenic Belt: implications for ore genesis and geodynamic setting. Ore Geol Rev doi:10.1016/j.oregeorev.2012.03.001Google Scholar
  63. Lin CS, Yang HJ, Liu JY, Rui ZF, Cai ZZ, Zhu YF (2012) Distribution and erosion of the Paleozoic tectonic unconformities in the Tarim Basin, Northwest China: significance for the evolution of paleo-uplifts and tectonic geography during deformation. J Asian Earth Sci 46:1–19Google Scholar
  64. Liu JM, Zhao Y, Sun YL, Li DP, Liu J, Chen BL, Zhang SH, Sun WD (2010) Recognition of the latest Permian to early Triassic Cu-Mo mineralization on the northern margin of the North China block and its geological significance. Gondwana Res 17:125–134Google Scholar
  65. Liu SW, Zhang J, Li Q, Zhang L, Wang W, Yang PT (2011) Geochemistry and U-Pb zircon ages of metamorphic volcanic rocks of the Paleoproterozoic Luliang Complex and constraints on the evolution of the Trans-North China Orogen, North China Craton. Precambrian Res. doi:10.1016/j.precamres.2011.07.006Google Scholar
  66. Lobato LM, Figueredo e Silva RC, Hagemann S, Thorne W, Zucchetti M (2008) Hypogene alteration associated with high-grade banded iron formation-related iron ore. Soc Econ Geol Rev 15:107–128Google Scholar
  67. Long XP, Yuan C, Sun M, Zhao GC, Xiao WJ, Wang YJ, Yang YH, Hu AQ (2010) Archean crustal evolution of the northern Tarim Craton, NW China: Zircon U-Pb and Hf isotopic constraints. Precambrian Res 180:272–284Google Scholar
  68. Lu LZ, Xu XC, Liu FL (1995) The Precambrian khondalite series in northern China. Changchun Publishing House, Changchun, p 99Google Scholar
  69. Lu SN, Yang CL, Li HK, Li H (2002) A group of rifting events in the terminal Paleoproterozoic in the North China Craton. Gondwana Res 5:123–131Google Scholar
  70. Lu SN, Li HK, Zhang CL, Niu GH (2008) Geological and geochronological evidence for the Precambrian evolution of the Tarim Craton and surrounding continental fragments. Precambrian Res 160:94–107Google Scholar
  71. Luo ZK, Guan K, Yu HY, Li YM (2003) The key factors for formation of large-superlarge gold deposits in Zhaolai area, Jiaodong region. J Geol Expl 18:95–102 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  72. Xu JW, Zhu G (1994) Tectonics models of the Tan-Lu Fault Zone, Eastern China. Int Geol Rev 36:771–784Google Scholar
  73. Makarov VI, Alekseev DV, Batalev VYu, Bataleva EA, Belyaev IV, Bragin VD, Dergunov NZ, Efimova NN, Leonov MG, Munirova LM, Pavlenkin AD, Roecker S, Roslov YuV, Rybin AK, Shchelochkov GG (2010) Underthrusting of Tarim beneath the Tien Shan and deep structure of their junction zone: main results of seismic experiment along MANAS profile Kashgar-Song-Kol. Geotectonics 44:102–126Google Scholar
  74. Mao JW, Wang YT, Zhang ZH, Yu JJ, Niu BG (2003a) Geodynamic settings of Mesozoic large-scale mineralization in North China and adjacent areas—implication from the highly precise and accurate ages of metal deposits. Sci China Ser D 46:838–851Google Scholar
  75. Mao JW, Li YQ, Godlfarb RJ, He Y, Zaw K (2003b) Fluid inclusion and noble gas studies of the Dongping gold deposit, Hebei Province, China: a mantle connection for mineralization? Econ Geol 98:517–534Google Scholar
  76. Mao JW, Xie GQ, Li XF, Zhang CQ, Mei YX (2004) Mesozoic large scale mineralisation and multiple lithospheric extension in South China. Earth Sci Front (China University of Geosciences, Beijing) 11:45–55 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  77. Mao JW, Wang YT, Li HM, Pirajno F, Zhang CJ, Wang RT (2008) The relationship of mantle-derived fluids to gold metallogenesis in the Jiadong peninsula: evidence from D-O-C-S isotope systematics. Ore Geol Rev 33:361–381Google Scholar
  78. Mao JW, Xie GQ, Pirajno F, Ye HS, Wang YB, Li YF, Xiang JF, Zhao HJ (2010) Late Jurassic-early Cretaceous granitoid magmatism in Eastern Qinling, central-eastern China: SHRIMP zircon U-Pb ages and tectonic implications. Aust J Earth Sci 57:51–78Google Scholar
  79. McKerrow WS, Scotese CR, Brasier MD (1992) Early Cambrian continental reconstructions. J Geol Soc Lond 149:599–606Google Scholar
  80. Meng QR, Wei HH, Qu YQ, Ma SX (2011) Stratigraphic and sedimentary records of the rift to drift evolution of the northern China Craton at the Paleo- to Mesoproterozoic transition. Gondwana Res 20:205–218Google Scholar
  81. Miao LC, Qiu YM, Fan WM, Zhang FQ, Zhai MG (2005) Geology, geochronology and tectonic setting of the Jiaopigou gold deposits, southern Jilin Province, China. Ore Geol Rev 26:137–165Google Scholar
  82. Miller LD, Goldfarb RJ, Nie FJ, Hart CJR, Miller ML, Yang YQ, Liu YQ (1998) North China Gold—a product of multiple orogens. SEG Newsl 33:1–12Google Scholar
  83. Nie FJ, Zhang WY, Du AD, Jiang SH, Liu Y (2007) Re-Os isotopic dating on molybdenite separates from the Xiaodonggou porphyry Mo deposit, Hexigten Qi, Inner Mongolia. Acta Geol Sin 81:898–905 (in Chinese with English Abstract)Google Scholar
  84. Nokleberg WJ (ed) (2010) Metallogenesis and tectonics of northeast Asia. USGS Profess Paper 1765Google Scholar
  85. O’Reilly SY, Griffin WL, Djoman, YHP, Morgan P (2001) Are lithospheres forever? Tracking changes in subcontinental lithospheric mantle through time. GSA Today 11:4–10Google Scholar
  86. Peng P (2010) Reconstruction and interpretation of giant mafic dyke swarms: a case study of 1.78 Ga magmatism in the North China Craton. Geological Society, London, Sp Publ 338, pp 163–178Google Scholar
  87. Peng P, Zhai M, Zhang HF, Guo JH (2005) Geochronological constraints on the Paleoproterozoic evolution of the North China Craton: SHRIMP zircon ages of different types of mafic dikes. Int Geol Rev 47:492–508Google Scholar
  88. Peng P, Zhai MG, Guo JH, Zhao TP, Liu F, Hu B (2008) A 1.78 Ga large igneous province consisting of the North China dyke swarm and Xiong’er Volcanic Province. Lithos 101:260–280Google Scholar
  89. Peng P, Guo JH, Windley BF, Li XH (2011) Halaqin volcano-sedimentary succession in the central-northern margin of the North China Craton: products of late Paleoproterozoic ridge subduction. Precambrian Res 187(1–3):165–180Google Scholar
  90. Pirajno F (2009) Hydrothermal processes and mineral systems. Springer, Berlin, p 1250Google Scholar
  91. Pirajno F, Chen YJ (2005) The Xiong’er Group: a 1.76 Ga large igneous province in east-central China? http://www.largeigneousprovinces.orgGoogle Scholar
  92. Pirajno F, Ernst RE, Borisenko AS, Fedoseev G, Naumov EA (2009) Intraplate magmatism in central Asia and China and associated metallogeny. Ore Geol Rev 35:114–136Google Scholar
  93. Qiu YM, Groves DI, McNaughton NJ, Wang LG, Zhou TH (2002) Nature, age and tectonic setting of granitoid-hosted, orogenic gold deposits of the Jiaodong Peninsula, eastern North China Craton, China. Miner Depos 37:283–305Google Scholar
  94. Ren JS, Xiao LW (2002) Tectonic settings of petroliferous basins in continental China. Episodes 25:227–235Google Scholar
  95. Ren JY, Tamaki K, Li ST, Zhang JX (2002) Late Mesozoic and Cenozoic rifting and its dynamic setting in eastern China and adjacent areas. Tectonophysics 344:175–205Google Scholar
  96. Rock NMS, Groves D, Perring CS, Golding SD (1989) Gold, lamprophyres, and porphyries: what does their association mean? Econ Geol Monogr 6:609–625Google Scholar
  97. Rogers JJW, Santosh M (2004) Continents and supercontinents. Oxford University Press, New York, p 289Google Scholar
  98. Santosh M (2010) Assembling North China Craton within the Columbia supercontinent: the role of double-sided subduction. Precambrian Res 178:149–167Google Scholar
  99. Santosh M, Zhao D, Kusky T (2010) Mantle dynamics of the Paleoproterozoic North China Craton: a perspective based on seismic tomography. J Geodyn 49:39–53Google Scholar
  100. Santosh M, Liu SJ, Tsunogae T, Li JH (2011) Paleoproterozoic ultrahigh-temperature granulites in the North China Craton: implications for tectonic models on extreme crustal metamorphism. Precambrian Res. doi:10.1016/j.precamres.2011.05.003Google Scholar
  101. Sengör AMC, Natal’in B (1996) Paleotectonics of Asia: fragments of a synthesis. In: Yin A, Harrison M (eds) The tectonic evolution of Asia. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 486–640Google Scholar
  102. Sengör AMC, Graham SA, Biddle KT (1996) Is the Tarim Basin underlain by a Neoproterozoic oceanic plateau? Geol Soc Am Abs Programs 28:67Google Scholar
  103. Slack JF (1996) Tourmaline associations with hydrothermal ore deposits. Rev Mineral 33:559–641Google Scholar
  104. Smith MP (2007) Metasomatic silicate chemistry at the Bayan Obo Fe-REE-Nb deposit, Inner Mongolia, China: contrasting chemistry and evolution of fenitising and mineralising fluids. Lithos 93:126–148Google Scholar
  105. Smith MP, Henderson P (2000) Preliminary fluid inclusion constraints on fluid evolution in the Bayan Obo Fe-REE-Nb deposit, Inner Mongolia, China. Econ Geol 95:1371–1388Google Scholar
  106. Smith MP, Henderson P, Campbell LS (2000) Fractionation of the REE during hydrothermal processes: constraints from the Bayan Obo Fe-REE-Nb deposit, Inner Mongolia, China. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 64:3141–3160Google Scholar
  107. Thorne WS, Hagemann SG, Barley ME (2004) Petrographic and geochemical evidence for the hydrothermal evolution of the North deposit, Mt Tom Price, Western Australia. Miner Depos 39:766–783Google Scholar
  108. Trap P, Faure M, Lin W, Meffre S (2009) The Luliang Massif: a key area for the understanding of the Palaeoproterozoic Trans-North China Belt, North China Craton. Geological Society, London, Sp Publ 323, pp 99–125Google Scholar
  109. Trap P, Faure M, Lin W, Le Breton N, Monie P (2011) Paleoproterozoic tectonic evolution of the Trans-North China Orogen: toward a comprehensive model. Precambrian Res. doi:10.1016/j.precamres.2011.09.008Google Scholar
  110. Trendall AF, Blockley JG (2004) Precambrian iron formation. In: Erikson PG, Altermann W, Nelson DR, Muller WU, Catuneau O (eds) The Precambrian earth: tempos and events. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 403–421Google Scholar
  111. Turner SA (2010) Sedimentary record of late Neoproterozoic rifting in the NW Tarim Basin, China. Precambrian Res 181(1–4):85–96Google Scholar
  112. Wan YS, Liu DY, Dong CY, Xu ZY, Wang ZJ, Wilde SA, Yang YS, Liu ZH, Zhou HY (2009) The Precambrian khondalite belt in the Daqingshan area, North China Craton: evidence for multiple metamorphic events in the Palaeoproterozoic era. Geological Society, London, Spl Publ 323, pp 75–97Google Scholar
  113. Wang J, Tatsumoto M, Li X, Premo WR, Chao ECT (1994) A precise 232Th-208Pb chronology of fine grained monazite: age of the Bayan Obo REE-Fe-Nb ore deposit, China. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 58:3155–3169Google Scholar
  114. Wang LG, Qiu YM, McNaughton NJ, Groves DI, Luo ZK, Huang JZ (1998) Constraints on crustal evolution and gold metallogeny in the northwestern Jiaodong Peninsula, China, from SHRIMP U--Pb zircon studies of granitoids. Ore Geol Rev 13:275–291Google Scholar
  115. Wang YJ, Fan WM, Zhang YH, Guo F, Zhang HF, Peng TP (2004) Geochemical, 40Ar/39Ar geochronological and Sr-Nd isotopic constraints on the origin of Paleoproterozoic mafic dikes from the southern Taihang Mountains and implications for the ca. 1800 Ma event of the North China Craton. Precambrian Res 135:55–47Google Scholar
  116. Wang HS, Zhang SH, He GQ (2005) China and Mongolia. In: Selley R, Cocks LRM, Plimer IR (eds) Encyclopedia of geology. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 345–358Google Scholar
  117. Wang ZH, Wilde SA, Wan JL (2010) Tectonic setting and significance of 2.3–2.1 Ga magmatic events in the Trans-North China orogen: new constraints from the Yanmenguan mafic-ultramafic intrusion in the Hengshan-Wutai-Fuping area. Precambrian Res 178(1–4):27–42Google Scholar
  118. Wilde SA, Zhao GC, Sun M (2002) Development of the North China Craton during the late Archaean and its final Amalgamation at 1.8 Ga: some speculations on its position within a global Palaeoproterozoic Supercontinent. Gondwana Res 5:85–94Google Scholar
  119. Wong WH (1927) Crsutal movements and igneous activities in eastern China, since Mesozoic time. Bull Geol Soc China 6:9–37Google Scholar
  120. Wu FY, Wilde SA, Zhang GL, Sun DY (2004) Geochronology and petrogenesis of the post-orogenic Cu-Ni sulfide-bearing mafic-ultramafic complexes in Jilin Province, NE China. J Asian Earth Sci 23:781–797Google Scholar
  121. Wu M, Zhao G, Sun M, Yin C, Li S, Tam PY (2011) Petrology and P-T path of the Yishui mafic granulites: implications for tectonothermal evolution of the western Shandong Complex in the Eastern Block of the North China Craton. Precambrian Res. doi:10.1016/j.precamres.2011.08.008Google Scholar
  122. Xiao XY, Wang LS, Li H, Li C, Wang GQ, Cai DS, Luo YH (2001) Geotemperature field in Bohai Sea. China Off Shore Oil Gas (Geol) 15:105–110 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  123. Xu B, Jian P, Zheng HF, Zou H, Zhang LF, Liu DY (2005) U-Pb zircon geochronology and geochemistry of Neoproterozoic volcanic rocks in the Tarim Block of northwest China: implications for the breakup of Rodinia supercontinent and Neoproterozoic glaciations. Precambrian Res 136:107–123Google Scholar
  124. Xu XS, Griffin WL, Ma X, O’Reilly SY, He ZY, Zhang CL (2009) The Taihua group on the southern margin of the North China Craton: further insights from U-Pb ages and Hf isotope composition of zircons. Miner Pet 97:43–59Google Scholar
  125. Xue LW, Yuan ZL, Zhanmg YS (1995) The Sm-Nd siotope age of Taihua group in Lushan area and their implications. Geochimica 24(Suppl):92–97Google Scholar
  126. Yang MZ, Lu GX (1996) The geology-geochemistry of gold deposits of the greenstone belt in Jiaodong district, China. Geol Publ House Beijing (in Chinese), p 200Google Scholar
  127. Yang XM, Le Bas MJ (2004) Chemical composition of carbonate minerals from Bayan Obo, Inner Mongolia, China: implications for petrogenesis. Lithos 72:97–116Google Scholar
  128. Yang JH, Wu FY, Wilde SA (2003) A review of the geodynamic setting of large scale late Mesozoic gold mineralization in the North China Craton: an association with lithospheric thinning. Ore Geol Rev 23:125–152Google Scholar
  129. Yang KF, Fan HR, Santosh M, Hu FF, Wang KY (2011a) Mesoproterozoic mafic and carbonatitic dykes from the northern margin of the North China Craton: implications for the final breakup of Columbia supercontinent. Tectonophysics 498:1–10Google Scholar
  130. Yang KF, Fan HR, Santosh M, Hu FF, Wang KY (2011b) Mesoproterozoic carbonatitic magmatism in the Bayan Obo deposit, Inner Mongolia, North China: constraints for the mechanism of superaccumulation of rare earth elements. Ore Geol Rev 40:122–131Google Scholar
  131. Yin A, Nie SY (1996) A Phanerozoic palinspastic reconstruction of China and its neighboring regions. In: Yin A, Harrison TM (eds) The tectonic evolution of Asia. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 442–485Google Scholar
  132. Zhai MG (2004) Precambrian tectonic evolution of the North China Craton. Geological Society, London, Sp Publ 226, pp 57–72Google Scholar
  133. Zhai MG, Liu WJ (2003) Palaeoproterozoic tectonic history of the North China Craton: a review. Precambrian Res 122:183–199Google Scholar
  134. Zhai MG, Guo JH, Liu WJ (2005) Neoarchean to Palaeoproterozoic continental evolution and tectonic history of the North China Craton: a review. J Asian Earth Sci 24:547–561Google Scholar
  135. Zhai MG, Li TS, Peng P, Hu B, Liu F, Zhang YB (2010) Precambrian key tectonic events and evolution of the North China Craton. Geological Society, London, Sp Publ 338, pp 235–262Google Scholar
  136. Zhang GW (1989) Formation and evolution of the Qinling Orogen. Northwest University Press, Xia’n, p 199 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  137. Zhang SX (2009) Geological formation names of China (1866–2000), vol 1 and 2. Springer, Dordrecht, p 1537Google Scholar
  138. Zhang P, Hou S (1991) Metallogenic model of kimberlite in North China craton, China. Proceedings of the Fifth Kimberlite Conference, CPRM Sp Publ 92:466–469Google Scholar
  139. Zhang CL, Li ZX, Li XH, Ye HM, Wang A, Guo KY (2006) Neoproterozoic bimodal intrusive complex in the southwestern Tarim Block, Northwest China: age, geochemistry and implications for the rifting of Rodinia. Int Geol Rev 48:112–128Google Scholar
  140. Zhang CL, Li ZX, Li XH, Yu HF, Ye HM (2007a) An early Paleoproterozoic high-K intrusive complex in southwestern Tarim Block, NW China: age, geochemistry and tectonic implications. Gondwana Res 12:101–112Google Scholar
  141. Zhang CL, Li XH, Li ZX, Lu SN, Ye HM, Li HM (2007b) Neoproterozoic ultramafic-mafic-carbonatite complex and granitoids in Qurutagh of northeastern Tarin Block, western China: geochronology, geochemistry and tectonic implications. Precambrian Res 152:149–169Google Scholar
  142. Zhang CL, Yang DS, Wang HY, Takahashi Y, Ye HM (2010) Neoproterozoic mafic-ultramafic layered intrusion in Quruqtagh of northeastern Tarim Block, NW China: two phases of mafic igneous activity with different mantle sources. Gondwana Res 19(1):177–190Google Scholar
  143. Zhang LC, Zhai MG, Zhang XJ, Xiang P, Dai YP, Wang C, Pirajno F (2011a) Formation age and tectonic setting of the Shirengou Neoarchean banded iron deposit in eastern Hebei Province: constraints from geochemistry and SIMS zircon U-Pb dating. Precambrian Res. doi:10.1016/j.precamres.2011.09.007Google Scholar
  144. Zhang XJ, Zhang LC, Xiang P, Bo W, Pirajno F (2011b) Zircon U-Pb age, Hf isotopes and geochemistry of Shuichang Algoma-type banded iron-formation, North China Craton: constraints on the ore-forming age and tectonic setting. Gondwana Res 20(1):137–148Google Scholar
  145. Zhang J, Zhao GC, Li SZ, Sun M, Chan LS, Shen WL, Liu SW (2011c) Structural pattern of the Wutai Complex and its constraints on the tectonic framework of the Trans-North China Orogen. Precambrian Res. doi:10.1016/j.precamres.2011.08.009Google Scholar
  146. Zhang CL, Li HK, Santosh M, Li ZX, Zou HB, Wang HY, Ye HM (2012) Precambrian evolution and cratonization of the Tarim Block, NW China: petrology, geochemistry, Nd-isotopes and U-Pb zircon geochronology from Archaean gabbro-TTG-potassic granite suite and Paleoproterozoic metamorphic belt. J Asian Earth Sci47:5–20Google Scholar
  147. Zhao TP, Zhou MF (2009) Geochemical constraints on the tectonic setting of Paleoproterozoic A-type granites in the southern margin of the North China Craton. J Asian Earth Sci 36:183–195Google Scholar
  148. Zhao GC, Wilde SA, Cawood PA, Sun M (2001) Archean blocks and their boundaries in the North China Craton: lithological, geochemical, structural and P-T path constraints and tectonic evolution. Precambrian Res 107:45–73Google Scholar
  149. Zhao GC, Sun M, Wilde SA, Guo J (2004) Late Archaean to Palaeoproterozoic evolution of the Trans-North China Orogen: insights from synthesis of existing data of the Hengshan-Wutai-Fuping belt. Geological Society, London, Sp Publ 226, pp 27–56Google Scholar
  150. Zhao GC, Min S, Wilde SA, Li SZ (2005) Late Archean to Paleoproterozoic evolution of the North China Craton: key issues revisited. Precambrian Res 136:177–202Google Scholar
  151. Zhao GC, Wilde SA, Li SZ, Sun M, Grantr ML, Li XP (2007a) U-Pb zircon age constraints on the Dongwanzi ultramafic-mafic body, North China, confirm it is not an Archean ophiolite. Earth Planet Sci Lett 255:85–93Google Scholar
  152. Zhao DP, Maruyama S, Omori S (2007b) Mantle dynamics of Western Pacific and East Asia: insight from seismic tomography and mineral physics. Gondwana Res 11:120–131Google Scholar
  153. Zhao TP, Chen W, Zhou MF (2009) Geochemical and Nd-Hf isotopic constraints on the origin of the ~ 1.74 Ga Damiao anorthosite complex, North China Craton. Lithos 113:673–690Google Scholar
  154. Zhao TP, Chen W, Lu B (2010) Characteristic and origin of the Fe-Ti-P oxide deposits associated with Proterozoic massif-type anorthosite. Earth Sci Front 17(2):106–117 (in Chinese, with English abstract)Google Scholar
  155. Zhou K (1995) Geological features and origin of the Hadamengou gold deposit, Inner Mongolia. Gold 16(10):5–8 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  156. Zhou MF, Bai WJ (1992) Chromite deposits in China and their origin. Miner Depos 27:192–199Google Scholar
  157. Zhou TH, Lü GX (2000) Tectonics, granitoids and Mesozoic gold deposits in East Shandong, China. Ore Geol Rev 16:71–90Google Scholar
  158. Zhou D, Graham SA, Chang EZ, Wang BY, Hacker B (2001) Paleozoic tectonic amalgamation of the Chinese Tian Shan: evidence from a transect along the Dushanzi-Kuqa highway. Geol Soc Am Mem 194:23–46Google Scholar
  159. Zhou TH, Goldfarb RJ, Phillips GN (2002) Tectonics and distribution of gold deposits in China—an overview. Miner Depos 37:249–282Google Scholar
  160. Zhou XH, Yang JH, Zhang LC (2003) Metallogenesis of the superlarge gold deposits in the Jiaodng region and deep processes of subcontinental lithosphere beneath North China Craton in Mesozoic. Sci China (Ser D) 46:14–25Google Scholar
  161. Zhu X (ed) (2007) Mineral facts of China. Elsevier, Amsterdam, p 776Google Scholar
  162. Zhu G, Niu ML, Xie CL, Wang YS (2010) Sinistral to normal faulting along the Tan-Lu fault zone: evidence for geodynamic switching of the East China continental margin. J Geol 118:277–293Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Geological Survey of Western Australia Centre for Exploration TargetingThe University of Western AustraliaPerthAustralia

Personalised recommendations