Radon in Air and Water

Chapter

Abstract

Radon is a natural radioactive gas that you cannot see, smell, or taste and that can only be detected with special equipment. It is produced by the radioactive decay of radium, which in turn is derived from the radioactive decay of uranium. Uranium is found in small quantities in all soils and rocks, although the amount varies from place to place. Radon decays to form radioactive particles that can enter the body by inhalation. Inhalation of the short-lived decay products of radon has been linked to an increase in the risk of developing cancers of the respiratory tract, especially of the lungs. Breathing radon in the indoor air of homes contributes to about 15,000 lung cancer deaths each year in the United States and 1,100 in the UK (HPA 2009). Only smoking causes more lung cancer deaths.

Keywords

Radon Concentration Indoor Radon Radon Level Radon Exposure Radon Emanation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Åkerblom G (1987) Investigations and mapping of radon risk areas. In: Proceedings of international symposium on geological mapping, Trondheim, 1986: in the service of environmental planning. Norges Geologiske Undersoekelse, Oslo, pp 96–106Google Scholar
  2. Åkerblom G (1999) Radon legislation and national guidelines 99:18. Swedish Radiation Protection InstituteGoogle Scholar
  3. Åkerblom G, Falk R, Lindgren J, Mjönes L, Östergren I, Söderman A-L, Nyblom L, Möre H, Hagberg N, Andersson P, Ek B-M (2005a) Natural radioactivity in Sweden, exposure to external radiation, radiological protection in transition. In: Proceedings of the XIV regular meeting of the Nordic Society for Radiation Protection. NSFS Rättvik, Sweden, pp 207–210Google Scholar
  4. Åkerblom G, Falk R, Lindgren J, Mjönes L, Östergren I, Söderman A-L, Nyblom L, Möre H, Hagberg N, Andersson P, Ek B-M (2005b) Natural radioactivity in Sweden, exposure to internal radiation, radiological protection in transition. In: Proceedings of the XIV regular meeting of the Nordic Society for Radiation Protection. NSFS Rättvik, Sweden, pp 211–214Google Scholar
  5. Akerblom G, Lindgren J (1997) Mapping of groundwater radon potential, Uranium exploration data and techniques applied to the preparation of radioelement maps; proceedings. International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, pp 237–255Google Scholar
  6. Åkerblom G, Mellander H (1997) Geology and radon. In: Durrani SA, Ilic´ R (eds) Radon measurements by etched track detectors. World Scientific, River Edge, pp 21–49Google Scholar
  7. Appleton JD, (2004) Influence of faults on geological radon potential in England and Wales. In: Barnet I, Neznal M, Pacherová P (eds) Radon investigations in the Czech Republic X and the seventh international workshop on the geological aspects of radon risk mapping. Czech Geological Survey & Radon Corporation, PragueGoogle Scholar
  8. Appleton JD, Ball TK (2001) Geological radon potential mapping. In: Bobrowsky PT (ed) Geoenvironmental mapping: methods, theory and practice. Balkema, Rotterdam, pp 577–613Google Scholar
  9. Appleton JD, Miles JCH (2002) Mapping radon-prone areas using integrated geological and grid square approaches. In: Barnet I, Neznal M, Mikšová J (eds) Radon investigations in the Czech Republic IX and the sixth international workshop on the geological aspects of radon risk mapping. Czech Geological Survey, Prague, pp 34–43Google Scholar
  10. Appleton JD, Miles JCH (2010) A statistical evaluation of the geogenic controls on indoor radon concentrations and radon risk. J Environ Radioact 101:799–803Google Scholar
  11. Appleton JD, Miles JCH, Talbot DK (2000a) Dealing with radon emissions in respect of new development: evaluation of mapping and site investigation methods for targeting areas where new development may require radon protective measures. British geological survey research report, RR/00/12Google Scholar
  12. Appleton JD, Miles JCH, Scivyer CR, Smith PH (2000b) Dealing with radon emissions in respect of new development: summary report and recommended framework for planning guidance. British geological survey research report, RR/00/07Google Scholar
  13. Appleton JD, Miles JCH, Green BMR, Larmour R (2008) Pilot study of the application of tellus airborne radiometric and soil geochemical data for radon mapping. J Environ Radioact 99:1687–1697Google Scholar
  14. Appleton JD, Cave MR, Miles JCH, Sumerling TJ (2011a) Soil radium, soil gas radon and indoor radon empirical relationships to assist in post-closure impact assessment related to near-surface radioactive waste disposal. J Environ Radioact 102:221–234Google Scholar
  15. Appleton JD, Doyle E, Fenton D, Organo C (2011b) Radon potential mapping of the Tralee-Castleisland and Cavan areas (Ireland) based on airborne gamma-ray spectrometry and geology. J Radiol Prot 31:221–235Google Scholar
  16. Appleton JD, Miles JCH, Young M (2011c) Comparison of Northern Ireland radon maps based on indoor radon measurements and geology with maps derived by predictive modelling of airborne radiometric and ground permeability data. Sci Total Environ 409:1572–1583Google Scholar
  17. Avino R, Capaldi G, Pece R (1999) Radon in active volcanic areas of Southern Italy. Nuovo Cimento Della Societa Italiana Di Fisica C-Geophys Space Phys 22:379–385Google Scholar
  18. Ball TK, Miles JCH (1993) Geological and geochemical factors affecting the radon concentration in homes in Cornwall and Devon, UK. Environ Geochem Health 15(1):27–36Google Scholar
  19. Ball TK, Cameron DG, Colman TB, Roberts PD (1991) Behavior of radon in the geological environment – a review. Q J Eng Geol 24(2):169–182Google Scholar
  20. Ball TK, Cameron DG, Colman TB (1992) Aspects of radon potential mapping in Britain. Radiat Prot Dosimetry 45:211–214Google Scholar
  21. Barnet I (1994) Radon risk classification for building purposes in the Czech Republic. In: Barnet I, Neznal M (eds) Radon investigations in Czech Republic V. Czech Geological Survey, Prague, pp 18–24Google Scholar
  22. Barnet I, Miksová J, Fojtíková I (2002) The GIS analysis of indoor radon and soil gas in major rock types of the Czech Republic. In: Barnet I, Neznal M, Mikšová J (eds) Radon investigations in the Czech Republic IX and the sixth international workshop on the geological aspects of radon risk mapping. Czech Geological Survey, Prague, pp 5–11Google Scholar
  23. Barnet I, Pacherova P, Neznal M, Neznal M (2008) Radon in geological environment – Czech experience, special papers. Czech Geological Survey, Prague, p 70Google Scholar
  24. Barnet I, Pacherová P, Preusse W, Stec B (2010) Cross-border radon index map 1: 100 000 Lausitz – Jizera – Karkonosze – Region (northern part of the Bohemian Massif). J Environ Radioact 101:809–812Google Scholar
  25. Bossew P (2003) The radon emanation power of building materials, soils and rocks. Appl Radiat Isot 59:389–392Google Scholar
  26. Bossew P (2009) Uncertainty of block estimates introduced by mis-allocation of point samples: on the example of spatial indoor radon data. J Environ Radioact 100:274–279Google Scholar
  27. Bossew P (2010) Radon: exploring the log-normal mystery. J Environ Radioact 101:826–834Google Scholar
  28. Bossew P, Lettner H (2007) Investigations on indoor radon in Austria, part 1: seasonality of indoor radon concentration. J Environ Radioact 98:329–345Google Scholar
  29. Bossew P, Dubois G, Tollefsen T (2008) Investigations on indoor radon in Austria, part 2: geological classes as categorical external drift for spatial modelling of the radon potential. J Environ Radioact 99:81–97Google Scholar
  30. BRE (1999) Radon: guidance on protective measures for new dwellings. Building research establishment report, BR 211Google Scholar
  31. Burke O, Murphy P (2011) Regional variation of seasonal correction factors for indoor radon levels. Radiat Meas 46:1168–1172Google Scholar
  32. CEC (Council of the European Community) (1998) Council directive 98/83/EC on the quality of water intended for human consumption. Off J Europ Comm, L 330/32 of 5.12.98Google Scholar
  33. Chau ND, Chrusciel E, Prokolski L (2005) Factors controlling measurements of radon mass exhalation rate. J Environ Radioact 82:363–369Google Scholar
  34. Chen J (2009) A preliminary design of a radon potential map for Canada: a multi-tier approach. Environ Earth Sci 59:775–782Google Scholar
  35. Chen D, You X, Hu R (2005) Indoor radon survey in indoor environments in Zhuhai city, China. Radiat Meas 39:205–207Google Scholar
  36. Chen J, Ford K, Whyte J, Bush K, Moir D, Cornett J (2011) Achievements and current activities of the Canadian radon program. Radiat Prot Dosimetry 146:14–18Google Scholar
  37. Cheng JP, Guo QJ, Ren TS (2002) Radon levels in China. J Nucl Sci Technol 39:695–699Google Scholar
  38. Ciotoli G, Guerra M, Lombardi S, Vittori E (1998) Soil gas survey for tracing seismogenic faults: a case study in the Fucino basin, central Italy. J Geophys Res-Solid Earth 103:23781–23794Google Scholar
  39. Clavensjö B, Åkerblom G (1994) The radon book. The Swedish Council for Building Research, StockholmGoogle Scholar
  40. Cliff KD, Miles JCH (eds) (1997) Radon research in the European Union, EUR 17628. National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton, UKGoogle Scholar
  41. Cohen BL (1997) Problems in the radon vs. Lung cancer test of the linear no-threshold theory and a procedure for resolving them. Health Phys 72:623–628Google Scholar
  42. Cross FT (1992) A review of experimental animal radon health insights and implications. In: Dewey DC et al (eds) Radiation research, a twentieth century perspective. Academic, New York, pp 333–339Google Scholar
  43. Darby SC et al (1995) Radon and cancers other than lung cancer in underground miners – a collaborative analysis of 11 studies. J Natl Cancer Inst 87(5):378–384Google Scholar
  44. Darby SC, Whitely E, Silcocks P et al (1998) Risk of cancer associated with residential radon exposure in South-West England: a case–control study. Br J Cancer 78:394–408Google Scholar
  45. Darby S, Hill D, Auvinen A, Barrios-Dios JM, Baysson H, Bochicchio F, Deo H, Falk R, Forastiere F, Hakama M, Heid I, Kreienbrock L, Kreuzer M, Lagarde F, Makelainen I, Muirhead C, Oberaigner W, Pershagen G, Ruano-Ravina A, Ruosteenoja E, Rosario AS, Tirmarche M, Tomasek L, Whitley E, Wichmann HE, Doll R (2005) Radon in homes and risk of lung cancer: collaborative analysis of individual data from 13 European case–control studies. Br Med J 330:223–226Google Scholar
  46. Denman AR, Crockett RGM, Groves-Kirkby CJ, Phillips PS, Gillmore GK, Woolridge AC (2007) The value of seasonal correction factors in assessing the health risk from domestic radon—a case study in Northamptonshire, UK. Environ Int 33:34–44Google Scholar
  47. Dubois G (2005) An overview of radon surveys in Europe. Office for Official Publications of the European Community, Luxembourg, p 168Google Scholar
  48. Dubois G, Bossew P, Friedmann H (2007) A geostatistical autopsy of the Austrian indoor radon survey (1992–2002). Sci Total Environ 377:378–395Google Scholar
  49. Dubois G, Bossew P, Tollefsen T, De Cort M (2010) First steps towards a European atlas of natural radiation: status of the European indoor radon map. J Environ Radioact 101:786–798Google Scholar
  50. Duport P (2002) Is the radon risk overestimated? Neglected doses in the estimation of the risk of lung cancer in uranium underground miners. Radiat Prot Dosimetry 98(3):329–338Google Scholar
  51. Duval JS, Otton JK (1990) Radium distribution and indoor radon in the Pacific Northwest. Geophys Res Lett 17(6):801–804Google Scholar
  52. Fennell SG, Mackin GM, Madden JS, McGarry AT, Duffy JT, O’Colmáin M, Colgan PA, Pollard D (2002) Radon in dwellings the Irish national radon survey. Survey Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland, DublinGoogle Scholar
  53. Friedmann H, Gröller J (2010) An approach to improve the Austrian radon potential Map by Bayesian statistics. J Environ Radioact 101:804–808Google Scholar
  54. Galán López M, Martín Sánchez A (2008) Present status of 222Rn in groundwater in Extremadura. J Environ Radioact 99:1539–1543Google Scholar
  55. Ghosh D, Deb A, Sengupta R (2009) Anomalous radon emission as precursor of earthquake. J Appl Geophys 69:67–81Google Scholar
  56. Gillmore GK, Sperrin M, Phillips P, Denman A (2000) Radon hazards, geology, and exposure of cave users: a case study and some theoretical perspectives. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 46:279–288Google Scholar
  57. Gillmore GK, Phillips P, Denman A, Sperrin M, Pearce G (2001) Radon levels in abandoned metalliferous mines, Devon, southwest England. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 49:281–292Google Scholar
  58. Gillmore GK, Phillips PS, Denman AR, Gilbertson DD (2002) Radon in the Creswell crags Permian limestone caves. J Environ Radioact 62:165–179Google Scholar
  59. Gilmore GK, Phillips P, Denman A, Sperrin M, Pearce G (2001) Radon levels in abandoned metalliferous mines, Devon, Southwest England. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 49(3):281–292Google Scholar
  60. Grasty RL (1997) Radon emanation and soil moisture effects on airborne Gamma-Ray measurements. Geophysics 62(5):1379–1385Google Scholar
  61. Gray A, Read S, McGale P, Darby S (2009) Lung cancer deaths from indoor radon and the cost effectiveness and potential of policies to reduce them. BMJ 338:a3110Google Scholar
  62. Greeman DJ, Rose AW (1996) Factors controlling the emanation of radon and thoron in soils of the eastern U. S. A. Chem Geol 129:1–14Google Scholar
  63. Greeman DJ, Rose AW, Jester WA (1990) Form and behavior of radium, uranium, and thorium in central Pennsylvania soils derived from dolomite. Geophys Res Lett 17(6):833–836Google Scholar
  64. Green BMR, Lomas PR, O’Riordan MC (1992) Radon in dwellings in England, NRPB-R254. National Radiological Protection Board, ChiltonGoogle Scholar
  65. Groves-Kirkby CJ, Denman AR, Phillips PS, Tornberg R, Woolridge AC, Crockett RGM (2008) Domestic radon remediation of U.K. dwellings by sub-slab depressurisation: evidence for a baseline contribution from constructional materials. Environ Int 34:428–436Google Scholar
  66. Gunby JA, Darby SC, Miles JCH, Green BMR, Cox DR (1993) Factors affecting indoor radon concentrations in the United Kingdom. Health Phys 64:2–12Google Scholar
  67. Gundersen LCS, Schumann ER (1996) Mapping the radon potential of the United States: examples from the Appalachians. Environ Int 22(suppl 1):S829–S844Google Scholar
  68. Gundersen LCS, Schumann ER, Otton JK, Dubief RF, Owen DE, Dickenson KE (1992) Geology of radon in the United States. In: Gates AE, Gundersen LCS (eds) Geologic controls on radon, Special paper 271. Geological Society America, Boulder, pp 1–16Google Scholar
  69. Hishinuma T, Nishikawa T, Shimoyama T, Miyajima M, Tamagawa Y, Okabe S (1999) Emission of radon and thoron due to the fracture of rock. Nuovo Cimento Della Societa Italiana Di Fisica C-Geophys Space Phys 22:523–527Google Scholar
  70. HPA (2009) Radon and public health: report prepared by the subgroup on radon epidemiology of the independent advisory group on ionising radiation. Documents of the Health Protection Agency. Health Protection Agency, UKGoogle Scholar
  71. Hunter N, Muirhead CR, Miles JCH, Appleton JD (2009) Uncertainties in radon related to house-specific factors and proximity to geological boundaries in England. Radiat Prot Dosim 136:17–22Google Scholar
  72. Hunter N, Muirhead CR, Miles JCH (2011) Two error components model for measurement error: application to radon in homes. J Environ Radioact 102:799–805Google Scholar
  73. ICRP (2007) The 2007 recommendations of the international commission on radiological protection, Annals ICRP. ICRP, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  74. ICRP (2009) International commission on radiological protection statement on radon. ICRP 37:2–4Google Scholar
  75. ICRP (International Committee on Radiological Protection) (1993) Protection against radon-222 at home and at work. Ann ICRP 23(2):1–65, ICRP Publication 65Google Scholar
  76. Ielsch G et al (2001a) Radon (Rn-222) level variations on a regional scale: influence of the basement trace element (U, Th) geochemistry on radon exhalation rates. J Environ Radioact 53(1):75–90Google Scholar
  77. Ielsch G, Thieblemont D, Labed V, Richon P, Tymen G, Ferry C, Robe MC, Baubron JC, Bechennec F (2001b) Radon (Rn-222) level variations on a regional scale: influence of the basement trace element (U, Th) geochemistry on radon exhalation rates. J Environ Radioact 53:75–90Google Scholar
  78. Ielsch G, Cushing ME, Combes P, Cuney M (2010) Mapping of the geogenic radon potential in France to improve radon risk management: methodology and first application to region Bourgogne. J Environ Radioact 101:813–820Google Scholar
  79. Je HK, Kang CG, Chon HT (1999) A preliminary study on soil-gas radon geochemistry according to different bedrock geology in Korea. Environ Geochem Health 21(2):117–131Google Scholar
  80. Jin Y, Wang Z, Lida T, Ikebe Y, Abe S, Chen H, Wu L, Zeng Q, Du K, Li S (1996) A new subnationwide survey of outdoor and indoor Rn-222 concentrations in China. Environ Int 22:S657–S663Google Scholar
  81. Kemski J, Klingel R (2008) Prediction of indoor radon in Germany on a regional scale. Kerntechnik 73:131–137Google Scholar
  82. Kemski J, Siehl A, Stegemann R, Valdivia-Manchego M (2001) Mapping the geogenic radon potential in Germany. Sci Total Environ 272(1–3):217–230Google Scholar
  83. Kemski J, Klingel R, Siehl A, Valdivia-Manchego M (2009) From radon hazard to risk prediction-based on geological maps, soil gas and indoor measurements in Germany. Environ Geol 56:1269–1279Google Scholar
  84. Krewski D, Lubin JH, Zielinski JM, Alavanja M, Catalan VS, Field RW, Klotz JB, Letourneau EG, Lynch CF, Lyon JI, Sandler DP, Schoenberg JB, Steck DJ, Stolwijk JA, Weinberg C, Wilcox HB (2005) Residential radon and risk of lung cancer – a combined analysis of 7 north American case–control studies. Epidemiology 16:137–145Google Scholar
  85. Krewski D, Lubin JH, Zielinski JM, Alavanja M, Catalan VS, Field RW, Klotz JB, Letourneau EG, Lynch CF, Lyon JL, Sandler DP, Schoenberg JB, Steck DJ, Stolwijk JA, Weinberg C, Wilcox HB (2006) A combined analysis of North American case–control studies of residential radon and lung cancer. J Toxicol Environ Health-Part a-Curr Issue 69:533–597Google Scholar
  86. Laurier D, Valenty M, Tirmarche M (2001) Radon exposure and the risk of leukemia: a review of epidemiological studies. Health Phys 81(3):272–288Google Scholar
  87. Lawrence CE, Akber RA, Bollhöfer A, Martin P (2009) Radon-222 exhalation from open ground on and around a uranium mine in the wet-dry tropics. J Environ Radioact 100:1–8Google Scholar
  88. Li XY, Zheng B, Wang Y, Wang X (2006) A survey of radon level in underground buildings in China. Environ Int 32:600–605Google Scholar
  89. Li X, Song B, Zheng B, Wang Y, Wang X (2010) The distribution of radon in tunnels with different geological characteristics in China. J Environ Radioact 101:345–348Google Scholar
  90. Lomas PR, Green BMR, Miles JCH, Kendall GM (1996) Radon Atlas of England, NRPB-290. National Radiological Protection Board, ChiltonGoogle Scholar
  91. Lubin JH (1998) On the discrepancy between epidemiologic studies in individuals of lung cancer and residential radon and Cohen’s ecologic regression. Health Phys 75(1):4–10Google Scholar
  92. Lubin JH, Boice JD (1997) Lung cancer risk from residential radon: meta-analysis of eight epidemiologic studies. J Natl Cancer Inst 89(1):49–57Google Scholar
  93. Lubin JH et al (1994) Radon exposure in residences and lung-cancer among women – combined analysis of 3 studies. Cancer Causes Control 5(2):114–128Google Scholar
  94. Man CK, Yeung HS (1998) Radioactivity contents in building materials used in Hong Kong. J Radioanal Nucl Chem 232(1–2):219–222Google Scholar
  95. Miksová J, Barnet I (2002) Geological support to the national radon programme (Czech Republic). Bull Czech Geol Surv 77(1):13–22Google Scholar
  96. Miles JCH (1998) Mapping radon-prone areas by log-normal modelling of house radon data. Health Phys 74:370–378Google Scholar
  97. Miles JCH (2001) Temporal variation of radon levels in houses and implications for radon measurement strategies. Radiat Prot Dosimetry 93:369–376Google Scholar
  98. Miles JCH, Appleton JD (2000) Identification of localised areas of England where radon concentrations are most likely to have 5% probability of being above the Action Level. Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions report, DETR/RAS/00.001. DETR, LondonGoogle Scholar
  99. Miles JCH, Appleton JD (2005) Mapping variation in radon potential both between and within geological units. J Radiol Prot 25:257–276Google Scholar
  100. Miles JCH, Ball TK (1996) Mapping radon-prone areas using house radon data and geological boundaries. Environ Int 22(suppl 1):779–782Google Scholar
  101. Miles JCH, Appleton JD, Rees DM, Green BMR, Adlam KAM, Myers AH (2007) Indicative atlas of radon in England and Wales. HPA, ChiltonGoogle Scholar
  102. Moreno V, Baixeras C, Font L, Bach J (2008) Indoor radon levels and their dynamics in relation with the geological characteristics of La Garrotxa, Spain. Radiat Meas 43:1532–1540Google Scholar
  103. Mudd GM (2008) Radon releases from Australian uranium mining and milling projects: assessing the UNSCEAR approach. J Environ Radioact 99:288–315Google Scholar
  104. Mui KW, Wong LT, Hui PS (2008) An approach to assessing the probability of unsatisfactory radon in air-conditioned offices of Hong Kong. J Environ Radioact 99:248–259Google Scholar
  105. Murphy P, Organo C (2008) A comparative study of lognormal, gamma and beta modelling in radon mapping with recommendations regarding bias, sample sizes and the treatment of outliers. J Radiol Prot 28:293–302Google Scholar
  106. NAS (1998) Health effects of exposure to radon (BEIR VI). National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  107. Nazaroff WW (1988) Measurement techniques. In: Radon and its decay products in indoor air. Wiley, New York, pp 491–504Google Scholar
  108. Neri M, Giammanco S, Ferrera E, Patanè G, Zanon V (2011) Spatial distribution of soil radon as a tool to recognize active faulting on an active volcano: the example of Mt. Etna (Italy). J Environ Radioact 102:863–870Google Scholar
  109. NRPB (1989) Living with radiation. National Radiological Protection Board, ChiltonGoogle Scholar
  110. NRPB (2000) Health risks from radon. National Radiological Protection Board, ChiltonGoogle Scholar
  111. Organo C, Murphy P (2007) The Castleisland radon survey – follow-up to the discovery of a house with extremely high radon concentrations in county Kerry (SW Ireland). J Radiol Prot 27:275–285Google Scholar
  112. Papastefanou C (2007) Measuring radon in soil gas and groundwaters: a review. Ann Geophys 50:569–578Google Scholar
  113. Papastefanou C (2010) Variation of radon flux along active fault zones in association with earthquake occurrence. Radiat Meas 45:943–951Google Scholar
  114. Pereira AJSC, Godinho MM, Neves LJPF (2010) On the influence of faulting on small-scale soil-gas radon variability: a case study in the Iberian uranium province. J Environ Radioact 101:875–882Google Scholar
  115. Petersell V, Åkerblom G, Ek B-M, Enel M, Mõttus V, Täht K (2005) Radon risk Map of Estonia: explanatory text to the radon risk map set of Estonia at scale of 1:500 000. Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, Tallinn/Stockholm, p 76Google Scholar
  116. Poffijn A, Goes E, Michaela I (2002) Investigation of the radon potential of an Alum deposit. In: Barnet I, Neznal M, Miksova J (eds) Radon investigations in the Czech Republic IX and the sixth international workshop on the geological aspects of radon risk mapping, Czech geological survey, PragueGoogle Scholar
  117. Przylibski TA, Mamont-Ciesla K, Kusyk M, Dorda J, Kozlowska B (2004) Radon concentrations in groundwaters of the Polish part of the Sudety Mountains (SW Poland). J Environ Radioact 75:193–209Google Scholar
  118. NRPA (Nordic Radiation Protection Authorities) (2000) Naturally occurring radioactivity in the Nordic countries – recommendations. The Radiation Protection Authorities in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and SwedenGoogle Scholar
  119. Ramachandan TV, Sathish LA (2011) Nationwide indoor 222Rn and 220Rn map for India: a review. J Environ Radioact 102:975–986Google Scholar
  120. Raspa G, Salvi F, Torri G (2010) Probability mapping of indoor radon-prone areas using disjunctive kriging. Radiat Prot Dosimetry 138:3–19Google Scholar
  121. Rees DM, Bradley EJ, Green BMR (2011) Radon in homes in England and Wales: 2010 data review, HPA-CRCE-015. HPA, ChiltonGoogle Scholar
  122. Rose AW, Hutter AR, Washington JW (1990) Sampling variability of radon in soil gases. J Geochem Explor 38:173–191Google Scholar
  123. Sakoda A, Ishimori Y, Hanamoto K, Kataoka T, Kawabe A, Yamaoka K (2010) Experimental and modeling studies of grain size and moisture content effects on radon emanation. Radiat Meas 45:204–210Google Scholar
  124. Scheib C, Appleton JD, Jones DJ, Hodgkinson E (2006) Airborne uranium data in support of radon potential mapping in Derbyshire, Central England. In: Barnet I, Neznal M, Pacherová P (eds) Radon investigations in the Czech Republic XI and the eighth international workshop on the geological aspects of radon risk mapping. Czech geological survey, Prague, pp 210–219Google Scholar
  125. Scheib C, Appleton JD, Miles JCH, Green BMR, Barlow TS, Jones DG (2009) Geological controls on radon potential in Scotland. Scott J Geol 45:147–160Google Scholar
  126. Singh S, Kumar A, Singh B (2002) Radon level in dwellings and its correlation with uranium and radium content in some areas of Himachal Pradesh, India. Environ Int 28(1–2):97–101Google Scholar
  127. Skeppstrom K, Olofsson B (2006) A prediction method for radon in groundwater using GIS and multivariate statistics. Sci Total Environ 367:666–680Google Scholar
  128. Smethurst MA, Strand T, Sundal AV, Rudjord AL (2008) Large-scale radon hazard evaluation in the Oslofjord region of Norway utilizing indoor radon concentrations, airborne gamma ray spectrometry and geological mapping. Sci Total Environ 407:379–393Google Scholar
  129. Smith BJ, Field RW, Lynch CF (1998) Residential Rn-222 exposure and lung cancer: testing the linear no-threshold theory with ecologic data. Health Phys 75(1):11–17Google Scholar
  130. Somlai J, Gorjanacz Z, Varhegyi A, Kovacs T (2006) Radon concentration in houses over a closed Hungarian uranium mine. Sci Total Environ 367:653–665Google Scholar
  131. Song G, Wang X, Chen D, Chen Y (2011) Contribution of 222Rn-bearing water to indoor radon and indoor air quality assessment in hot spring hotels of Guangdong, China. J Environ Radioact 102:400–406Google Scholar
  132. Song G, Chen D, Tang Z, Zhang Z, Xie W (2012) Natural radioactivity levels in topsoil from the Pearl River delta zone, Guangdong, China. J Environ Radioact 103:48–53Google Scholar
  133. Sundal AV, Henriksen H, Soldal O, Strand T (2004) The influence of geological factors on indoor radon concentrations in Norway. Sci Total Environ 328:41–53Google Scholar
  134. Swakon J, Kozak K, Paszkowski M, Gradzinski R, Loskiewicz J, Mazur J, Janik M, Bogacz xJ, Horwacik T, Olko P (2005) Radon concentration in soil gas around local disjunctive tectonic zones in the Krakow area. J Environ Radioact 78:137–149Google Scholar
  135. Talbot DK, Hodkin DL, Ball TK (1997) Radon investigations for tunnelling projects; a case study from St. Helier, Jersey. Q J Eng Geol 30(Part 2):115–122Google Scholar
  136. Tell I et al (1993) Indoor radon-daughter concentration and gamma-radiation in urban and rural homes on geologically varying ground. Sci Total Environ 128(2–3):191–203Google Scholar
  137. Tuia D, Kanevski M (2008) Indoor radon distribution in Switzerland: lognormality and extreme value theory. J Environ Radioact 99:649–657Google Scholar
  138. UNSCEAR (2009) United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). UNSCEAR 2006 report, annex E. Sources-to-effects assessment for radon in homes and workplaces. United Nations, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  139. UNSCEAR (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation) (2000) Sources, effects, and risks of ionizing radiation. United Nations, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  140. USDOE (United States Department of Energy) (1988) Radiation inhalation studies of animals, DOE/ER-0396, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  141. Verdoya M, Chiozzi P, De Felice P, Pasquale V, Bochiolo M, Genovesi I (2009) Natural gamma-ray spectrometry as a tool for radiation dose and radon hazard modelling. Appl Radiat Isot 67:964–968Google Scholar
  142. Vesterbacka P, Makelainen I, Arvela H (2005) Natural radioactivity in drinking water in private wells in Finland. Radiat Prot Dosimetry 113:223–232Google Scholar
  143. Wang N, Xiao L, Li C, Huang Y, Pei S, Liu S, Xie F, Cheng Y (2005) Determination radioactivity level of 238U, 232Th and 40K in surface medium in Zhuhai city by in-situ gamma-ray spectrometry. J Nucl Sci Technol 42:888–896Google Scholar
  144. Wang N, Xiao L, Li C, Mei W, Hang Y, Liu D (2009) Level of radon exhalation rate from soil in some sedimentary and granite areas of China. J Nucl Sci Technol 46:303–309Google Scholar
  145. Wang N, Xiao L, Liu CK, Liu S, Huang Y, Liu DJ, Peng M (2011) Distribution and characteristics of radon gas in soil from a high-background-radiation city in China. J Nucl Sci Technol 48:751–758Google Scholar
  146. Washington JW, Rose AW (1992) Temporal variability of radon concentrations in the interstitial gas of soils in Pennsylvania. J Geophys Res 97(B6):9145–9159Google Scholar
  147. Watson SJ, Al J, Oatway WB, Hughes JS (2005) HPA-RPD-001 – ionising radiation exposure of the UK population: 2005 review. HPA, ChiltonGoogle Scholar
  148. Wattananikorn K, Emharuthai S, Wanaphongse P (2008) A feasibility study of geogenic indoor radon mapping from airborne radiometric survey in northern Thailand. Radiat Meas 43:85–90Google Scholar
  149. WHO (1996) Guidelines for drinking-water quality, vol 2, 2nd edn. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  150. WHO (2009) WHO handbook on indoor radon: a public health perspective. WHO Press, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  151. Wiegand J et al (2000) Radon and thoron in cave dwellings (Yan’an, China). Health Phys 78(4):438–444Google Scholar
  152. Yamada Y, Sun QF, Tokonami S, Akiba S, Zhou WH, Hou CS, Zhang SZ, Ishikawa T, Furukawa M, Fukutsu K, Yonehara H (2006) Radon-thoron discriminative measurements in Gansu province, China, and their implication for dose estimates. J Toxicol Environ Health-Part a-Curr Issue 69:723–734Google Scholar
  153. Zhu HC, Charlet JM, Poffijn A (2001) Radon risk mapping in southern Belgium: an application of geostatistical and GIS techniques. Sci Total Environ 272(1–3):203–210Google Scholar
  154. Zhuo WH, Iida T, Yang XT (2001) Occurrence of Rn-222, Ra-226, Ra-228 and U in groundwater in Fujian Province, China. J Environ Radioact 53:111–120Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.British Geological SurveyNottinghamUK

Personalised recommendations