Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Mesodermal Progenitors for Bone Engineering
Stem cells display the unique properties of self-renewal and different degrees of potency for differentiation into various cell types. Stem cells derived from human embryos, or generated via reprogramming technology of somatic cells, can divide indefinitely and give rise to virtually all cell types constituting the human body under proper conditions (pluripotency). The high regenerative potential of human embryonic stem cells makes them an exceptional tool with unprecedented potential for investigational and therapeutic applications, such as for example in stem cell-based tissue engineering. However, the stemness phenotype of human embryonic stem cells is associated with their ability to form teratomas after in vivo transplantation, which is currently representing a major obstacle to their translational use into clinical practice. An alternative is the use of human embryonic stem cells as source for the derivation of renewable progenitor cells, which display lineage commitment restriction but lack the potential to form teratoma. Using different experimental strategies several human embryonic stem cell-derived progenitors have been established recently, including mesodermal progenitor cells displaying mesenchymal-like properties and high potential for the construction of functional substitutes for bone replacement therapies. However, relatively few experimental studies have been reported to date and further rigorous investigation is required to validate their functionality in vivo and assess their safety for possible future clinical applications.
KeywordsPluripotent Stem Cell Human Embryonic Stem Cell Bone Substitute Inner Cell Mass Osteogenic Lineage
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