Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Complex Players in Lung Repair and Injury
In the past decade, investigations related to the role of mesenchymal stem cells, both bone marrow derived and local, in lung disease and repair have grown exponentially. Stem cells are emerging as a therapeutic modality in various inflammatory disease states. A number of ongoing randomized phase I/II clinical trials are evaluating the effects of allogeneic mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) infusion in patients with multiple sclerosis, graft-versus-host disease, Crohn’s disease, and severe, chronic myocardial ischemia. MSC are also being considered and tested in clinical trials as a potential therapy in patients with inflammatory lung diseases including pulmonary fibrosis, acute lung injury, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema. Several studies, including our own, have demonstrated compelling benefits from the administration of bone marrow derived MSC in animal models of lung injury. These studies are leading to growing interest in the therapeutic use of MSCs in lung diseases. In this chapter, we describe how the immunoregulatory effects of MSCs can confer substantial protection in the setting of the most common lung diseases such as fibrosis, acute lung injury, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, and lung transplant. In addition we will discuss recent evidence for resident lung MSC and their functions during tissue homeostasis and disease.
KeywordsChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Mesenchymal Stem Cell Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid
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