History of Human Powered Threshing Machines: A Literature Review

  • K. S. ZakiuddinEmail author
  • H. V. Sondawale
  • J. P. Modak
  • Marco Ceccarelli
Part of the History of Mechanism and Machine Science book series (HMMS, volume 15)


The objective of this paper is to present the recent developments in the field of agricultural technology with respect to human powered threshing machines. This paper covers the form and existence of human powered threshing machines as well as manual methods from last decades. The different types of designs and progressive developments with operating parameters and mechanisms used can be overviewed from the literature review to find out the scope for further developments in human powered threshing machines.


Bevel Gear Gear Pair Wire Loop Pedal Operate Blower Unit 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Hopfen, H.J.: Farm Implements for Arid and Tropical Regions, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Via delle Terme di Caracalla 00100 Rome. Published in AT Microfiche Reference Library, Italy (1969)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Weightman, D.: Design for a Pedal Driven Unit for Transport and Machine Uses in Developing Countries. Lanchester Polytechnic, Industrial Design (1976)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Herdt, R.V.: Mechanization of Rice Production in Developing Asian Countries: Perspective, Evidence and Issues, Consequences of small Rice Form Mechanization Project, Working Project No. 15, pp. 1–35. International Rice Research Institute, Los Banos (1981)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Meisner, C.A., Justice, S.: Chinese Hand Tractor (CHT) Seeders in Bangladesh: An Update on progress on promotion, manufacture and utilization. In: CIMMYT Bangladesh and CIMMYT Nepal, May 28-June 4, p. 8 (1999)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Pariyar, M.P., Shrestha, K.B., Dhakal, N.H.: Baseline Study on Agricultural Mechanization Needs in Nepal, Rice-Wheat Consotorium, Paper Series 13, Rice-Wheat Consotorium for the Indo-Gangetic Plains, New Delhi, India (2001)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Nag, P.K., Nag, A.: Drudgery, Accidents and Injuries in Indian Agriculture. Industrial Health 42, 149–162 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Nimbkar, N.: Annual Research Report (2006-2007), Unpublished, Nimbkar Agricultural. Research Institute (NARI), Phaltan, India. pp 1–29 (2007)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    SAARC Agriculture Centre. SAARC Journal of Agriculture 5(1) (June 2007)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Singh, K.P., Pardeshi, I.L., Kumar, M., Srinivas, K., Srivastava, A.K.: Optimisation of machine paramemters of pedal-operated paddy thresher using RSM. Science Direct, Biosystem Engineering 100, 591–600 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Goel, A.K., Behera, D., Swain, S., Behera, B.K.: Performance Evaluation of a Low Cost Manual Sunflower Thresher. Indian J. Agric. Res. 43(1), 37–41 (2009)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Moser, et al.: Pedal Operated Threshing Machine, United States, Patent Application Publication, Pub. No. US 2010/0298037 AL, Sheet 1-8, pp 1-4 (November 2010)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Maunde, F.A., Yalmas, S.M., Richard, T.E.: Design of Manual Cowpea Thresher. African Journal of Agricultural Research 5(12), 1419–1423 (2010)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    The Madhya Pradesh State Agro Industries Development Corporation Ltd., Bhopal, India: Open Ended Rate Contract Offer (RCO) for supply of ISI Marked Power Threshers (IS:9020:2002), Pedal Operated Paddy Threshers & Rotavator (2010)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Manchikanti, P., Sengupta, M.: Agricultural Machinery in India: IPR Perspective. Journal of Intelectual Property Rights 16, 163–169 (2011)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    ITDG Agricultural Equipment and Tools No. 37: Foot Powered Thresher, Intermediate Technology Publications, Ltd., 9 King Street, London WC2E, 8 HN, UK, AT Microfiche Reference LibraryGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Pandey, M.M.: Present status and Future Requirement of Farm Equipment for Crop Production, pp. 69–113. Made Avail by Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Bhopal (Unpublished)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sirohi, N.P.S.: Long Term Strategies and Programme for Mechanization of Agriculture in Agro Climatic Zone-III: Plains Region. Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, (Unpublished)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Pathnopas, R.: The Economics of the Rice Threshing Machines in Thailand: A Case Study of Chachoengsao and Supanburi Provinces, Thesis, Thammasat University, Bangkok, Thailand (May 1980) (Unpublished)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lee, C.C.: Economic and Engineering Aspects of Mechanization of Rice Harvesting in Korea. In: Southworth (ed.) Farm Mechanization in East Asia, Agricultural Development Council, New York (1972)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Resource Manual on Integrated Production and Pest Management (IPPM) in Rice: World Education (INGO) Philippines, Inc., 2999 National Road, Anos, Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines. Email: (2005),
  21. 21.
    Simonyan, K.J., Yilijep, Y.D.: Investigating Grain Separation and Cleaning Efficiency Distribution of Conventional Stationary Rasp-Bar Sorghum Thresher. Agricultural Engineering International; the CIGR Ejournal Manuscript PM 07 028 X (August 2008)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Caruthers, I.: Tools for Agriculture: A buyers guide to appropriate equipment, 3rd edn. IT publication in association with GTZ/GATE, London (1985)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    A treadle powered machine FT 370, Gridley, CA 95948,

Copyright information

© Springer Netherlands 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. S. Zakiuddin
    • 1
    Email author
  • H. V. Sondawale
    • 2
  • J. P. Modak
    • 1
  • Marco Ceccarelli
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringPriyadarshini College of EngineeringNagpurIndia
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical EngineeringSmt. Rajshree Mulak College of Engineering for WomenNagpurIndia
  3. 3.LARM, Laboratory of Robotics and Mechatronics, DiMSATUniversity of CassinoCassinoItaly

Personalised recommendations