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Jute Biology, Diversity, Cultivation, Pest Control, Fiber Production and Genetics

  • Susmita Maity
  • Sandipan ChowdhuryEmail author
  • Animesh K. Datta
Chapter
Part of the Sustainable Agriculture Reviews book series (SARV, volume 9)

Abstract

The genus Corchorus, commonly known as jute, includes more than 170 species, all of which are annual fibrous plants. Jute fiber is totally biodegradable and compostable and therefore an extremely attractive renewable resource. While the cultivated species, C. olitorius L. and C. capsularis L., are economically important for fibre production, the wild species are considered important genetic resources for biotic and abiotic stress tolerance and fine fibre trait. However, there are some constraints in jute cultivation and research. The cultivation requires lot of watering which is often hampered due to late showering and low moisture content in the air. Jute is very prone to disease and pest attack. Although application of pesticides is a popular preventive measure it also raises the issue of biomagnifications of those harmful chemicals by entering the food chain of the ecosystem. In addition, the fibre processing disturbs the environment by causing water pollution during retting. Some other negative issues related to its cultivation are indoor air emissions from the products, and greenhouse gas emission due to using waste jute for energy.

The high cost of production in comparison to synthetic materials leads to unemployment due to closing of jute processing factories which becomes a major concern in terms of socio economic impact of jute cultivation. Apart from these issues related to cultivation, some other constraints also exists in its research. The cell wall of Corchorus is composed of high amount of lignin which is a major barrier for cytological and cytogenetical analysis. Due to these problems the wild as well as the cultivated species of jute are poorly understood and explored and thus in most of the cases hybridization attempts was not successful till now. However, proper hybridization between wild and cultivated species needs adequate information on morphological, cytological, cytogenetical biochemical and molecular aspects and will result in the emergence of novel plant types with several beneficial characters. With a view to all of these including the economical importance of jute species, an overview is conducted involving nearly all essential aspects to provide updated and adequate information to researchers for effective utilization in human benefit.

This chapter reviews morphological, biochemical, cytological, palynological, anatomical and molecular analysis of genome along with induced mutagenesis, interspecific hybridization, pest management, retting procedures, tissue culture and transgenic development strategies in jute species for their successful exploitation. Cytological and cytogenetical aspects will provide a wealth of information about the chromosomes and their behavior that forms the basis of efficient interspecific hybri­dization. Information on biochemical parameters is important for providing a knowledge base regarding further research on fibre quality improvement. Although induced mutagenesis is known as an effective tool for creating superior plant types having morphological and biochemical marker traits, adequate reports on jute is meager. This aspect is discussed in detail as one of the major points. Jute cultivation has always suffered from pest attack and various microbial infections. Reports on jute pests and disease and their management will be helpful for taking necessary preventive measures against its damage in field. Moreover, transgenic development and efficient tissue culture method are important for rapid propagation of jute and for introducing desirable traits in short times and for optimum utilization of available resource to achieve a low cost of production and high benefit.

Keywords

Corchorus Cytomixis Hybridization Jute Karyotype Meiosis Mutagenesis Pests Polyploidy Retting 

Abbreviations

2,4-D

2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid

AFLP

amplified fragment length polymorphism

AI

anaphase I

AII

anaphase II

BAP

6-benzylaminopurine

cp DNA

chloroplast DNA

EcoRI

E. coli RI

H2SO4

sulphuric acid

I

univalent

II

bivalent

IAA

indole-3-acetic acid

ISSR

inter simple sequence repeat

MI

metaphase I

MS

Murashige and Skoog medium

mV

milli volt

NaOH

sodium hydroxide

NDGA

nordihydroguiaretic acid

NPK

nitrogen phosphorous potassium

PEG

polyethylene glycol

PMC

pollen mother cell

RAPD

random amplified polymorphic DNA

SDS–PAGE

sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

SSR

simple sequence repeat

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Susmita Maity
    • 1
  • Sandipan Chowdhury
    • 2
    Email author
  • Animesh K. Datta
    • 3
  1. 1.Public Health Laboratory DivisionNational Institute of Cholera and Enteric DiseasesKolkataIndia
  2. 2.Department of Molecular Biology and BiotechnologyKalyani MahavidyalayaKalyaniIndia
  3. 3.Department of Botany, Cytogenetics and Plant Breeding SectionUniversity of KalyaniKalyaniIndia

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