Aegle marmelos

Chapter

Abstract

Bael is indigenous to Peninsular India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Myanmar. It is also grown elsewhere throughout tropical/subtropical Asia and the Pacific.

Selected References

  1. Abraham PM, Kuruvilla KP, Mathew J, Malat A, Joy S, Paulose CS (2010a) Alterations in hippocampal serotonergic and INSR function in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats exposed to stress: neuroprotective role of pyridoxine and Aegle marmelos. J Biomed Sci 17(1):78PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abraham PM, Paul J, Paulose CS (2010b) Down regulation of cerebellar serotonergic receptors in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats: effect of pyridoxine and Aegle marmelos. Brain Res Bull 82(1–2):87–94PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Agarwal R, Gupta SK, Srivastava S, Saxena R, Agrawal SS (2009) Intraocular pressure-lowering activity of topical application of Aegle marmelos fruit extract in experimental animal models. Ophthalmic Res 42(2):112–116PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Agrawal A, Jahan S, Soyal D, Goyal E, Goyal PK (2011) Amelioration of chemical-induced skin carcinogenesis by Aegle marmelos, an Indian medicinal plant, fruit extract. Integr Cancer Ther doi: 10.1177/1534735411417127Google Scholar
  5. Agrawal A, Verma P, Goyal PK (2010) Chemomodulatory effects of Aegle marmelos against DMBA-induced skin tumorigenesis in Swiss albino mice. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 11(5):1311–1314PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Ali MS, Pervez MK (2004) Marmenol: a 7-geraniloxy coumarin from the leaves of Aegle marmelos Corr. Nat Prod Res 18:141–146PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Anandharajan R, Jaiganesh S, Shankernarayanan NP, Viswakarma RA, Balakrishnan A (2006) In vitro glucose uptake activity of Aegles marmelos and Syzygium cumini by activation of Glut-4, PI3 kinase and PPARgamma in L6 myotubes. Phytomedicine 13(6):434–441PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Anandkumar J, Mandal B (2009) Removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solution using Bael fruit (Aegle marmelos Correa) shell as an adsorbent. J Hazard Mater 68(2–3):633–640CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Arul V, Miyazaki S, Dhananjayan R (2004) Mechanisms of the contractile effect of the alcoholic extract of Aegle marmelos Corr. on isolated guinea pig ileum and tracheal chain. Phytomedicine 11(7–8):679–683PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Arul V, Miyazaki S, Dhananjayan R (2005) Studies on the anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic properties of the leaves of Aegle marmelos Corr. J Ethnopharmacol 96(1–2):159–163PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Backer CA, Bakhuizen van den Brink RC Jr (1965) Flora of Java (spermatophytes only), vol 2. Wolters-Noordhoff, Groningen, 641 ppGoogle Scholar
  12. Badam L, Bedekar SS, Sonawane KB, Joshi SP (2002) In vitro antiviral activity of Bael (Aegle marmelos Corr.) upon human coxsackieviruses B1-B6. J Commun Dis 34(2):88–99PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Baliga MS, Bhat HP, Pereira MM, Mathias N, Venkatesh P (2010) Radioprotective effects of Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa (Bael): a concise review. J Altern Complement Med 16(10):1109–1116PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Barthakur NN, Arnold NP (1989) Certain organic and inorganic constituents in bael (Aegle marmelos Correa) fruit. Trop Agric 66(1):65–68Google Scholar
  15. Basak RK, Mandal PK, Mukherjee AK (1981) Studies on a neutral polysaccharide isolated from bael (Aegle marmelos) fruit pulp. Carbohydr Res 97(2):315–321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Basak RK, Mandal PK, Mukherjee AK (1982) Investigations on the structure of a hemicelluloses fraction isolated from the trunk of a young bael (Aegle marmelos) tree. Carbohydr Res 104(2):309–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Baslas KK, Deshpandey SS (1951) Essential oil from leaves of Bael. J Indian Chem Soc 28:19–22Google Scholar
  18. Basu D, Sen R (1974) Alkaloids and coumarins from ­root-bark of Aegle marmelos. Phytochemical 13(10):2329–2330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Benni JM, Jayanthi MK, Suresha RN (2011) Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory activity of Aegle marmelos (Bilwa) root. Indian J Pharmacol 43(4):393–397PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bhattacharyya P, Jash SS, Dey AK (1989) 6′,7′-Epoxyauraptene. A coumarin from Aegle marmelos. J Indian Chem Soc 66(6):424–425Google Scholar
  21. Brijesh S, Daswani P, Tetali P, Antia N, Birdi T (2009) Studies on the antidiarrhoeal activity of Aegle marmelos unripe fruit: validating its traditional usage. BMC Complement Altern Med 9:47PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Burkill IH (1966) A dictionary of the economic products of the Malay Peninsula. Revised reprint. 2 vols. Ministry of Agriculture and Co-operatives, Kuala Lumpur, vol 1 (A–H), pp 1–1240, vol 2 (I–Z), pp 1241–2444Google Scholar
  23. Chakravarty S, Mohanty A, Sudha TN, Upadhyay AK, Konar J, Sircar JK, Madhukar A, Gupta KK (2010) Removal of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solution by adsorption using bael leaves (Aegle marmelos). J Hazard Mater 173(1–3):502–509PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Charoensiddhi S, Anprung P (2008) Bioactive compounds and volatile compounds of Thai bael fruit (Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa) as a valuable source for functional food ingredients. Int Food Res J 15(3):287–295Google Scholar
  25. Chatterjee A, Bhattacharya A (1959) The isolation and constitution of marmin, a new coumarin from Aegle marmelos, Corres. J Chem Soc Pap 385:1922–1924Google Scholar
  26. Chatterjee A, Chaudhury B (1960) Occurrence of auraptene, umbelliferone, marmin, lupeol and skimminanine in the root of Aegle marmelos Correa. J Indian Chem Soc 37:334–336Google Scholar
  27. Chatterjee A, Choudhury A (1955) The structure of marmin, a new coumarin of Aegle marmelos Correa. Naturwissenschaften 42(18):512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Chatterjee A, Mitra SS (1949) On the constitution of the active principles isolated from the mature bark of Aegle marmelos Correâ. J Am Chem Soc 71(2):606–609PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Chatterjee A, Roy SK (1957) Aegelenine, a new alkaloid of the leaves of Aegle marmelos Correa. Sci Cult 23:106–107Google Scholar
  30. Chauhan A, Agarwal M (2008) Reversible changes in the antifertility induced by Aegle marmelos in male albino rats. Syst Biol Reprod Med 54(6):240–246PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Chauhan A, Agarwal M (2009) Assessment of the contraceptive efficacy of the aqueous extract of Aegle marmelos Corr. leaves in male albino rats. Hum Fertil (Camb) 12(2):107–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Chauhan A, Agarwal M, Kushwaha S, Mutreja A (2007) Suppression of fertility in male albino rats following the administration of 50% ethanolic extract of Aegle marmelos. Contraception 76(6):474–481PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Costa-Lotufo LV, Khan MT, Ather A, Wilke DV, Jimenez PC, Pessoa C, de Moraes ME, de Moraes MO (2005) Studies of the anticancer potential of plants used in Bangladeshi folk medicine. J Ethnopharmacol 99(1):21–30PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) (1948) The wealth of India. A dictionary of Indian raw materials and industrial products. (Raw materials 1). Publications and Information Directorate, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  35. Das AV, Padayatti PS, Paulose CS (1996) Effect of leaf extract of Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa ex Roxb. on histological and ultrastructural changes in tissues of streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Indian J Exp Biol 34(4):341–345PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Das UK, Maiti R, Jana D, Ghosh D (2006) Effect of aqueous extract of leaf of Aegle marmelos on testicular activities in rats. Iranian J Pharmacol Ther 5(1):21–25Google Scholar
  37. Dhalwal K, Shinde VM, Mahadik KR, Namdeo AG (2007) Rapid densitometric method for simultaneous analysis of umbelliferone, psoralen, and eugenol in herbal raw materials using HPTLC. J Sep Sci 30(13):2053–2058PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Dhankhar S, Ruhil S, Balhara M, Dhankhar S, Chhillar AK (2011) Aegle marmelos (Linn.) Correa: a potential source of phytomedicine. J Med Plant Res 5(9):1497–1507Google Scholar
  39. Dhuley JN (2003–2004) Investigation on the gastroprotective and antidiarrhoeal properties of Aegle marmelos unripe fruit extract. Hindustan Antibiot Bull 45–46:41–46Google Scholar
  40. Elango G, Bagavan A, Kamaraj C, Abduz Zahir A, Abdul Rahuman A (2009a) Oviposition-deterrent, ovicidal, and repellent activities of indigenous plant extracts against Anopheles subpictus Grassi (Diptera: Culicidae). Parasitol Res 105(6):1567–1576PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Elango G, Rahuman AA (2011) Evaluation of medicinal plant extracts against ticks and fluke. Parasitol Res 108(3):513–519PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Elango G, Rahuman AA, Bagavan A, Kamaraj C, Zahir AA, Rajakumar G, Marimuthu S, Santhoshkumar T (2010a) Efficacy of botanical extracts against Japanese encephalitis vector, Culex tritaeniorhynchus. Parasitol Res 106(2):481–492PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Elango G, Rahuman AA, Bagavan A, Kamaraj C, Zahir AA, Venkatesan C (2009b) Laboratory study on larvicidal activity of indigenous plant extracts against Anopheles subpictus and Culex tritaeniorhynchus. Parasitol Res 10(6):1381–1388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Elango G, Rahuman AA, Kamaraj C, Bagavan A, Zahir AA (2011) Efficacy of medicinal plant extracts against malarial vector, Anopheles subpictus Grassi. Parasitol Res 108(6):1437–1445PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Elango G, Rahuman AA, Zahir AA, Kamaraj C, Bagavan A, Rajakumar G, Jayaseelan C, Santhoshkumar T, Marimuthu S (2010b) Evaluation of repellent pro­perties of botanical extracts against Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles (Diptera: Culicidae). Parasitol Res 107(3):577–584PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Faizi S, Farooqi F, Zikr-Ur-Rehman S, Naz A, Noor F, Ansari F, Ahmad A, Khan SA (2009) Shahidine, a novel and highly labile oxazoline from Aegle marmelos: the parent compound of aegeline and related amides. Tetrahedron 65(5):998–1004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Foundation for Revitalisation of Local Health Traditions (2008) FRLHT database. http://envis.frlht.org
  48. Garg SN, Siddiqui MS, Agarwal SK (1995) p-Menth-1-en-3-beta,5-beta-diol, a new constituent of Aegle marmelos leaf oil. J Essent Oil Res 7(3):283–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Gireesh G, Reas SK, Jobin M, Paulose CS (2008) Decreased muscarinic M1 receptor gene expression in the cerebral cortex of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and Aegle marmelos leaf extract’s therapeutic function. J Ethnopharmacol 116(2):296–304PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Goel RK, Maiti RN, Manickam M, Ray AB (1997) Antiulcer activity of naturally occurring pyrano-coumarin and isocoumarins and their effect on prostanoid synthesis using human colonic mucosa. Indian J Exp Biol 35(10):1080–1083PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Gohil T, Pathak N, Jivani N, Devmurari V, Patel J (2010) Treatment with extracts of Eugenia jambolana seed and Aegle marmelos leaf extracts prevents hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Afr J Pharm Pharmacol 4(5):270–275Google Scholar
  52. Gopalan G, Rama Sastri BV, Balasubramanian SC (2002) Nutritive value of Indian foods. National Institute of Nutrition, Indian Council of Medical Research, HyderabadGoogle Scholar
  53. Govindachari TR, Premila MS (1983) Some alkaloids from Aegle marmelos. Phytochemistry 22(3):755–757CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Hiremarh IG, Ahn YJ, Soon-II K (1996) Insecticidal activity of Indian plant extracts against Nilaparvata lugens (Homoptera Delphacidae). Appl Entomol Zool 32(1):159–166Google Scholar
  55. Jagetia GC, Baliga MS (2004) The evaluation of nitric oxide scavenging activity of certain Indian medicinal plants in vitro: a preliminary study. J Med Food 7(3):343–348PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Jagetia GC, Venkatesh P (2005) Radioprotection by oral administration of Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa in vivo. J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol 24(4):315–332PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Jagetia GC, Venkatesh P (2007) Inhibition of radiation-induced clastogenicity by Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa in mice bone marrow exposed to different doses of γ-radiation. Hum Exp Toxicol 26(2):111–124PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Jagetia GC, Venkatesh P, Archana P, Krishnanand BR, Baliga MS (2006) Effects of Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa on the peripheral blood and small intestine of mice exposed to gamma radiation. J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol 25:611–624PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Jagetia GC, Venkatesh P, Baliga MS (2003) Evaluation of the radioprotective effect of Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa in cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes exposed to different doses of γ-radiation: a micronucleus study. Mutagenesis 18(4):387–393PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Jagetia GC, Venkatesh P, Baliga MS (2004a) Evaluation of the radioprotective effect of bael leaf (Aegle marmelos) extract in mice. Int J Radiat Biol 80(4):281–290PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Jagetia GC, Venkatesh P, Baliga MS (2004b) Fruit extract of Aegle marmelos protects mice against radiation-induced lethality. Integr Cancer Ther 3(4):323–332PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Jagetia GC, Venkatesh P, Baliga MS (2005) Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa inhibits the proliferation of transplanted Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in mice. Biol Pharm Bull 28(1):58–64PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Jain AK, Srivastava SK, Srivastava SD (1991) Some new constituents from heartwood of Aegle marmelos Corr. J Indian Chem Soc 68(8):452–454Google Scholar
  64. Jaswanth A, Akilan D, Loganathan V, Manimaran S, Ruckmani (1994) Wound healing activity of Aegle marmelos. Indian J Pharm Sci 56(1):41–44Google Scholar
  65. Kakiuchi N, Senaratne LR, Huang SL, Yang XW, Hattori M, Pilapitiya U, Namba T (1991) Effects of constituents of Beli (Aegle marmelos) on spontaneous beating and calcium-paradox of myocardial cells. Planta Med 57(1):43–46PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Kamalakkannan N, Prince PS (2003) Hypoglycaemic effect of water extracts of Aegle marmelos fruits in streptozotocin diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol 87(2–3):207–210PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Kamalakkannan N, Prince PSM (2004a) Antidiabetic and anti-oxidant Activity of Aegle marmelos extract in Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Pharm Biol 42(2):125–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Kamalakkannan N, Prince PSM (2004b) Antihyper­lipidaemic effect of Aegle marmelos fruit extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats. J Sci Food Agric 85(4):569–573CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Kamalakkannan N, Prince PSM (2005) The effect of Aegle marmelos fruit extract in streptozotocin diabetes a histopathological study. J Herb Pharmacother 5(3):87–96PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Kamalakkannan N, Rajadurai M, Prince PSM (2003) Effect of Aegle marmelos fruits on normal and Streptozotocin-diabetic Wistar rats. J Med Food 6(2):93–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Kar A, Panda S, Bharti S (2002) Relative efficacy of three medicinal plant extracts in the alteration of thyroid hormone concentrations in male mice. J Ethnopharmacol 81(2):281–285PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Kaur HP, Garg SN, Sashidhara KV, Yadav A, Naqvi AA, Khanuja SPS (2006) Chemical composition of the essential oil of the twigs and leaves of Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa. J Essent Oil Res 18(3):288–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Kaur P, Walia A, Kumar S, Kaur S (2009) Antigenotixicty activity of polyphenolic rich extracts from Aegle mermelos (L.) Correa in human blood lymphocytes and E. coli PQ 37. Rec Nat Prod 3(1):68–75Google Scholar
  74. Kesari AN, Gupta RK, Singh SK, Diwakar S, Watal G (2006) Hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activity of Aegle marmelos seed extract in normal and diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol 107(3):374–379PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Khan TH, Sultana S (2009) Antioxidant and hepatoprotective potential of Aegle marmelos Correa against CCl4-induced oxidative stress and early tumor events. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem 24(2):320–327PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Khan TH, Sultana S (2011) Effect of Aegle marmelos on DEN initiated and 2-AAF promoted hepatocarcinogenesis: a chemopreventive study. Toxicol Mech Methods 21(6):453–462PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Kothari S, Minda M, Tonpay SD (2010) Anxiolytic and antidepressant activities of methanol extract of Aegle marmelos leaves in mice. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 54(4):318–328PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Kumari A, Kakkar P (2008) Screening of antioxidant potential of selected barks of Indian medicinal plants by multiple in vitro assays. Biomed Environ Sci 21(1):24–29PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Lambertini E, Lampronti I, Penolazzi L, Khan MT, Ather A, Giorgi G, Gambari R, Piva R (2005) Expression of estrogen receptor alpha gene in breast cancer cells treated with transcription factor decoy is modulated by Bangladeshi natural plant extracts. Oncol Res 15(2):69–79PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Lambertini E, Piva R, Khan MT, Lampronti I, Bianchi N, Borgatti M, Gambari R (2004) Effects of extracts from Bangladeshi medicinal plants on in vitro proliferation of human breast cancer cell lines and expression of estrogen receptor alpha gene. Int J Oncol 24(2):419–423PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Lambole VB, Murti K, Kumar U, Sandipkumar PB, Gajera V (2010) Phytopharmacological properties of Aegle marmelos as a potential medicinal tree: an overview. Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res 5(2):67–72Google Scholar
  82. Lampronti I, Martello D, Bianchi N, Borgatti M, Lambertini E, Piva R, Jabbar S, Choudhuri MSK, Khan MTH, Gambari R (2003) In vitro antiproliferative effects on human tumor cell lines of extracts from the Bangladeshi medicinal plant Aegle marmelos Correa. Phytomedicine 10(4):300–308PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Laphookhieo S, Phungpanya C, Tantapakul C, Techa S, Tha-in S, Narmdorkmai W (2011) Chemical constituents from Aegle marmelos. J Braz Chem Soc 22(1):176–178Google Scholar
  84. Maity P, Hansda D, Bandyopadhyay U, Mishra DK (2009) Biological activities of crude extracts and chemical constituents of Bael, Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr. Indian J Exp Biol 47(11):849–861PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Manandhar MD, Shoeb A, Kapil RS, Popli SP (1978) New alkaloids from Aegle marmelos. Phytochemistry 17:1814–1815Google Scholar
  86. Mandal PK, Mukherjee AK (1981) Investigations on the partial structure of a glycoprotein from bael (Aegle marmelos) seed. Carbohydr Res 98(1):85–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Mazumder R, Bhattacharya S, Mazumder A, Pattnaik AK, Tiwary PM, Chaudhary S (2006) Antidiarrhoeal evaluation of Aegle marmelos (Correa) Linn. root extract. Phytother Res 20(1):82–84PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Mishra BB, Kishore N, Tiwari VK, Singh DD, Tripathi V (2010a) A novel antifungal anthraquinone from seeds of Aegle marmelos Correa (family Rutaceae). Fitoterapia 81(2):104–107PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Mishra BB, Singh DD, Kishore N, Tiwari VK, Tripathi V (2010b) Antifungal constituents isolated from the seeds of Aegle marmelos. Phytochemistry 71(2–3):230–234PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Molesworth Allen B (1967) Malayan fruits. An introduction to the cultivated species. Moore, Singapore, 245 ppGoogle Scholar
  91. Narender T, Shweta S, Tiwari P, Papi Reddy K, Khaliq T, Prathipati P, Puri A, Srivastava AK, Chander R, Agarwal SC, Raj K (2007) Antihyperglycemic and antidyslipidemic agent from Aegle marmelos. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 17(6):1808–1811PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Narendhirakannan RT, Subramanian S (2010) Biochemical evaluation of the protective effect of Aegle marmelos (L.), Corr. leaf extract on tissue antioxidant defense system and histological changes of pancreatic beta-cells in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Drug Chem Toxicol 33(2):120–130PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Nugroho AE, Riyanto S, Sukari MA, Maeyama K (2010) Effects of skimmianine, a quinoline alkaloid of Aegle marmelos Correa roots, on the histamine release from rat mast cells. J Basic Appl Sci 6(2):141–148Google Scholar
  94. Nugroho AE, Riyanto S, Sukari MA, Maeyama K (2011) Effects of aegeline, a main alkaloid of Aegle marmelos Correa leaves, on the histamine release from mast cells. Pak J Pharm Sci 24(3):359–367PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Ohashi K, Watanabe H, Okumura Y, Uji T, Kitagawa I (1994) Indonesian medicinal plants. XII. Four isomeric lignan-glucosides from the bark of Aegle marmelos (Rutaceae). Chem Pharmaceut Bull 42(9):1924–1926CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Panda S, Kar A (2006) Evaluation of the antithyroid, antioxidative and antihyperglycemic activity of scopoletin from Aegle marmelos leaves in hyperthyroid rats. Phytother Res 20(12):1103–1105PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Panda S, Kar A (2009) Periplogenin-3-O-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-D-glucopyaranosyl-(1→4)-D-cymaropyranoside, isolated from Aegle marmelos protects doxorubicin induced cardiovascular problems and hepatotoxicity in rats. Cardiovasc Ther 27(2):108–116PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Patel P, Asdaq SMB (2010) Immunomodulatory activity of methanolic fruit extract of Aegle marmelos in experimental animals. Saudi Pharm J 18(3):161–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Patil RH, Bhushan C, Sailaxmi S (2011) Antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic activity of Aegle marmelos Linn. Pharmacogn J 1(4):Article 12Google Scholar
  100. Patil SV, Patil CD, Salunkhe RB, Salunke BK (2010) Larvicidal activities of six plants extracts against two mosquito species, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi. Trop Biomed 27(3):360–365PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Phuwapraisirisan P, Puksasook T, Jong-aramruang J, Udom Kokpol U (2008) Phenylethyl cinnamides: a new series of α-glucosidase inhibitors from the leaves of Aegle marmelos. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 18(18):4956–4958PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Ponnachan PT, Paulose CS, Panikkar KR (1993) Effect of leaf extract of Aegle marmelos in diabetic rats. Indian J Exp Biol 31(4):345–347PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Prince PS, Rajadurai M (2005) Preventive effect of Aegle marmelos leaf extract on isoprenaline-induced myocardial infarction in rats: biochemical evidence. J Pharm Pharmacol 57(10):1353–1357PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Purseglove JW (1968) Tropical crops: dicotyledons 1 & 2. Longman, London, 719 ppGoogle Scholar
  105. Raja SB, Murali MR, Devaraj SN (2008) Differential expression of ompC and ompF in multidrug-resistant Shigella dysenteriae and Shigella flexneri by aqueous extract of Aegle marmelos, altering its susceptibility toward beta-lactam antibiotics. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 61(3):321–328PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Raja SB, Murali MR, Kumar NK, Devaraj SN (2011a) Isolation and partial characterisation of a novel lectin from Aegle marmelos fruit and its effect on adherence and invasion of Shigellae to HT29 cells. PLoS One 6(1):e16231PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Raja SB, Murali MR, Roopa K, Devaraj SN (2011b) Imperatorin a furocoumarin inhibits periplasmic Cu-Zn SOD of Shigella dysenteriae their by modulates its resistance towards phagocytosis during host pathogen interaction. Biomed Pharmacother 65(8):560–568PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Rajadurai M, Prince PS (2005) Comparative effects of Aegle marmelos extract and alpha-tocopherol on serum lipids, lipid peroxides and cardiac enzyme levels in rats with isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction. Singapore Med J 46(2):78–81PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Ramesh B, Pugalendi KV (2007a) Effect of umbelliferone on tail tendon collagen and haemostatic function in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 101(2):73–77PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Ramesh B, Pugalendi KV (2007b) Influence of umbelliferone on glycoprotein components in diabetic rats. Toxicol Mech Methods 17(3):153–159PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Ramesh B, Pugalendi KV (2007c) Influence of umbelliferone on membrane-bound ATPases in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Pharmacol Rep 59(3):339–348PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Rana BK, Singh UP, Taneja V (1997) Antifungal activity and kinetics of inhibition by essential oil isolated from leaves of Aegle marmelos. J Ethnopharmacol 57(1):29–34PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Rani P, Khullar N (2004) Antimicrobial evaluation of some medicinal plants for their anti-enteric potential against multi-drug resistant Salmonella typhi. Phytother Res 18(8):670–673PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Riyanto S, Sukari MA, Rahmani M, Ee GCL, Taufiq-Yap YH, Aimi N, Kitajima M (2001) Alkaloids from Aegle marmelos (Rutaceae). Malays J Anal Sci 7(2):463–465Google Scholar
  115. Riyanto S, Sukari MA, Rahmani M, Manas AR, Ali AM, Yusuf UK, Muse R (2002) Coumarins from roots of Aegle marmelos. J Trop Med Plants 3(2):159–162Google Scholar
  116. Roy A, Mukherjee AK, Rao CV (1975) Graded-hydrolysis studies on bael (Aegle marmelos) gum. Carbohydr Res 41:219–226PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Sabde S, Bodiwala HS, Karmase A, Deshpande PJ, Kaur A, Ahmed N, Chauthe SK, Brahmbhatt KG, Phadke RU, Mitra D, Bhutani KK, Singh IP (2011) Anti-HIV activity of Indian medicinal plants. J Nat Med 65(3–4):662–669PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Sabu MC, Kuttan R (2004) Antidiabetic activity of Aegle marmelos and its relationship with its antioxidant properties. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 48(1):81–88PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Sachdewa A, Raina D, Srivastava AK, Khemani LD (2001) Effect of Aegle marmelos and Hibiscus rosa sinensis leaf extract on glucose tolerance in glucose induced hyperglycemic rats (Charles foster). J Environ Biol 22(1):53–57PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Saenphet K, Aritajat S, Saenphet S, Manosroi J, Manosroi A (2006) Safety evaluation of aqueous extracts from Aegle marmelos and Stevia rebaudiana on reproduction of female rats. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 37(Suppl 3):203–205PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Saha SK, Chatterjee A (1957) Isolation of allo-imperatorin and beta-sitosterol from the fruits of Aegle marmelos Correa. J Indian Chem Soc 34:228–230Google Scholar
  122. Sahare KN, Anandharaman V, Meshram VG, Meshram SU, Gajalakshmi D, Goswami K, Reddy MV (2008a) In vitro effect of four herbal plants on the motility of Brugia malayi microfilariae. Indian J Med Res 127(5):467–471PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Sahare KN, Anandhraman V, Meshram VG, Meshram SU, Reddy MV, Tumane PM, Goswami K (2008b) Anti-microfilarial activity of methanolic extract of Vitex negundo and Aegle marmelos and their phytochemical analysis. Indian J Exp Biol 46(2):128–131PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Samarasekera JK, Khambay BP, Hemalal KP (2004) A new insecticidal protolimonoid from Aegle marmelos. Nat Prod Res 18(2):117–122PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Shankarananth V, Balakrishnan N, Suresh D, Sureshpandian G, Edwin E, Sheeja E (2007) Analgesic activity of methanol extract of Aegle marmelos leaves. Fitoterapia 78(3):258–259PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Sharma BR, Rattan RK, Sharma P (1981) Marmelene, an alkaloid, and other components of unripe fruits of Aegle marmelos. Phytochemistry 20:2606–2607CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Sharma BR, Sharma P (1981) Constituents of Aegle marmelos. II. Alkaloids and coumarin from fruits. Planta Med 43(1):102–103PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Sharma AK, Bharti S, Goyal S, Arora S, Nepal S, Kishore K, Joshi S, Kumari S, Arya DS (2011) Upregulation of PPARγ by Aegle marmelos ameliorates insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction in high fat diet fed-streptozotocin induced type 2 diabetic rats. Phytother Res 25(10):1457–1465PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Shoba FG, Thomas M (2001) Study of antidiarrhoeal activity of four medicinal plants in castor-oil induced diarrhoea. J Ethnopharmacol 76(1):73–76PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Shoeb A, Kapil RS, Popli SP (1973) Coumarins and alkaloids of Aegle marmelos. Phytochemistry 12(8):2071–2072CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Singanan V, Singanan M, Begum H (2007) The hepatoprotective effect of bael leaves (Aegle marmelos) in alcohol induced liver injury in albino rats. Int J Sci Technol 2(2):83–92Google Scholar
  132. Singh P, Kumar A, Dubey NK, Gupta R (2009) Essential oil of Aegle marmelos as a safe plant-based antimicrobial against postharvest microbial infestations and aflatoxin contamination of food commodities. J Food Sci 74(6):M302–M307PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Singh RP, Banerjee S, Rao AR (2000) Effect of Aegle marmelos on biotransformation enzyme systems and protection against free-radical-mediated damage in mice. J Pharm Pharmacol 52(8):991–1000PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Sondhi N, Bhardwaj R, Kaur S, Kumar N, Singh B (2008) Isolation of 24-epibrassinolide from leaves of Aegle marmelos and evaluation of its antigenotoxicity employing Allium cepa chromosomal aberration assay. Plant Growth Regul 54(3):217–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Srivastava SD, Srivastava S, Srivastava SK (1996) New anthraquinones from the heartwood of Aegle marmelos. Fitoterapia 67(1):83–84Google Scholar
  136. Subhadrabanhdu S (2001) Under utilized tropical fruits of Thailand, FAO RAP Publication 2001/26. FAO, Bangkok, 70 ppGoogle Scholar
  137. Subramaniam D, Giridharan P, Murmu N, Shankaranarayanan NP, May R, Houchen CW, Ramanujam RP, Balakrishnan A, Vishwakarma RA, Anant S (2008) Activation of apoptosis by 1-hydroxy-5,7-dimethoxy-2-naphthalene-carboxaldehyde, a novel compound from Aegle marmelos. Cancer Res 68(20):8573–8581PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Sumanth M, Mustafa SS (2005) Antistress, adoptogenic activity of Aegle marmelos fruit in mice. Pharm Rev 3(6):Article 5Google Scholar
  139. Sundaram EN, Reddy PU, Singh KP (2009) Effect of alcoholic extracts of Indian medicinal plants on the altered enzymatic activities of diabetic rats. Indian J Pharm Sci 71(5):594–598PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Sur TK, Pandit S, Pramanik T (1999) Antispermatogenic activity of leaves of Aegle marmelos. Corr. in albino rats: a preliminary report. Biomedicine 19(3):199–202Google Scholar
  141. Sur TK, Pandit S, Paramanik T, Bhattacharyya D (2002) Effect of Aegle marmelos leaf on rat sperm motility: an in vitro study. Indian J Pharmacol 34:276–277Google Scholar
  142. Upadhya S, Shanbhag KK, Suneetha G, Naidu BM, Upadhya S (2004) A study of hypoglycemic and antioxidant activity of Aegle marmelos in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 48:476–480PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Veerappan A, Miyazaki S, Kadarkaraisamy M, Ranganathan D (2007) Acute and subacute toxicity studies of Aegle marmelos Corr., an Indian medicinal plant. Phytomedicine 14(2–3):209–215PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Venkatesan D, Karunakaran M, Kumar SS, Palaniswamy PT, Ramesh G (2009) Antimicrobial activity of Aegle marmelos against pathogenic organism compared with control drug. Ethnobot Leaflet 8: Article 1Google Scholar
  145. Venkatesh P, Shantala B, Jagetia GC, Rao KK, Baliga MS (2007) Modulation of doxorubicin-induced genotoxicity by Aegle marmelos in mouse bone marrow: a micronucleus study. Integr Cancer Ther 6(1):42–53PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Vijaya C, Ramanathan M, Suresh B (2009) Lipid lowering activity of ethanolic extract of leaves of Aegle marmelos (Linn.) in hyperlipidaemic models of Wistar albino rats. Indian J Exp Biol 47(3):182–185PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Vimal V, Devaki T (2004) Linear furanocoumarin protects rat myocardium against lipidperoxidation and membrane damage during experimental myocardial injury. Biomed Pharmacother 58(6–7):393–400PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Vinodhini R (2010) Detoxifying effect of Nelumbo nucifera and Aegle marmelos on hematological parameters of common ca rp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Interdiscip Toxicol 3(4):127–131PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Watt G (1972) A dictionary of the economic products of India, vol 1–6. Cosmo Publications, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  150. Yang XW, Hattori M, Namba T (1996a) Studies on the anti-lipid peroxidative actions of the methanolic extract of the root of Aegle marmelos and its constituents in vivo and in vitro. J Chin Pharm Sci 5(3):132–140Google Scholar
  151. Yang XW, Hattori M, Namba T (1996b) Two new coumarins from the roots of Aegle marmelos. J Chin Pharm 5(2):68–73Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.CanberraAustralia

Personalised recommendations