Malus x domestica

  • T. K. Lim


Recent genomic studies by Velasco et al. (2010) identified the progenitor of the cultivated apple as M. sieversii. This species was found in the IIi Valley, on the northern slopes of the Tien Shan mountains at the border of northwest China and Kazakhstan. Leaves taken from trees in this area were analyzed for DNA composition, which showed them all to belong to the species M. sieversii, with some genetic sequences common to Malus domestica. However, another chloroplast DNA analysis found that Malus sylvestris had also contributed to the genome of M. domestica (Coart et al. 2006). A closer relationship than presently accepted was found between M. sylvestris and M. domestica at the cytoplasmic level, with the detection of eight chloroplast haplotypes shared by both species. Hybridization between M. sylvestris and M. domestica was also apparent at the local level with sharing of rare haplotypes among local cultivars and sympatric wild trees. Indications of the use of wild Malus genotypes in the (local) cultivation process of M. domestica and cytoplasmic introgression of chloroplast haplotypes into M. sylvestris from the domesticated apple were found. Only one of the M. sieversii trees studied displayed one of the three main chloroplast haplotypes shared by M. sylvestris and M. domestica. Thus the origin of the domestic apple is still unresolved. There are more than 7,500 known cultivars of apples, resulting in a diverse range of desired characteristics.


Chlorogenic Acid Apple Juice Apple Pomace Apple Variety Apple Pectin 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.CanberraAustralia

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