Phyllanthus emblica

  • T. K. LimEmail author


Phyllanthus emblica is indigenous to Nepal, India and Sri Lanka, throughout South-East Asia to southern China. It is widely cultivated for its fruits throughout its natural area of distribution, particularly in India, and also in the Mascarene Islands (Réunion, Mauritius), the West Indies(Cuba, Trinidad), Central America (Honduras, Costa Rica), and the West Indies and Japan. Formerly it was cultivated in Madagascar. It is commonly cultivated in home gardens in India, Malaysia, Singapore and southern China.


Ethyl Acetate Extract Fruit Extract Swiss Albino Mouse Phyllanthus Emblica Polyherbal Formulation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Selected References

  1. Adil MD, Kaiser P, Satti NK, Zargar AM, Vishwakarma RA, Tasduq SA (2010) Effect of Emblica officinalis (fruit) against UVB-induced photo-aging in human skin fibroblasts. J Ethnopharmacol 132(1):109–114PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alam MI, Gomes A (2003) Snake venom neutralization by Indian medicinal plants (Vitex negundo and Emblica officinalis) root extracts. J Ethnopharmacol 86(1):75–80PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Al-Rehaily AJ, Al-Howiriny TA, Al-Sohaibani MO, Rafatullah S (2002) Gastroprotective effects of ‘Amla’ Emblica officinalis on in vivo test models in rats. Phytomedicine 9(6):515–522PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anila L, Vijayalakshmi NR (2002) Flavonoids from Emblica officinalis and Mangifera indica – effectiveness for dyslipidemia. J Ethnopharmacol 79(1):81–87PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Anilakumar KR, Nagaraj NS, Santhanam K (2007) Reduction of hexachlorocyclohexane-induced oxidative stress and cytotoxicity in rat liver by Emblica officinalis Gaertn. Indian J Exp Biol 45(5):450–454PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Arulkumaran S, Ramprasath VR, Shanthi P, Sachdanandam P (2006) Restorative effect of Kalpaamruthaa, an indigenous preparation, on oxidative damage in mammary gland mitochondrial fraction in experimental mammary carcinoma. Mol Cell Biochem 291(1-2):77–82PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Asmawi MZ, Kankaanranta H, Moilanen E, Vapaatalo H (1993) Anti-inflammatory activities of Emblica officinalis Gaertn leaf extracts. J Pharm Pharmacol 45(6):581–584PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bafna PA, Balaraman R (2005) Anti-ulcer and anti-oxidant activity of pepticare, a herbomineral formulation. Phytomedicine 12(4):264–270PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bagavan A, Kamaraj C, Elango G, Abduz Zahir A, Abdul Rahuman A (2009) Adulticidal and larvicidal efficacy of some medicinal plant extracts against tick, fluke and mosquitoes. Vet Parasitol 166(3–4):286–292PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bagavan A, Rahuman AA, Kamaraj C, Kaushik NK, Mohanakrishnan D, Sahal D (2011) Antiplasmodial activity of botanical extracts against Plasmodium falciparum. Parasitol Res 108(5):1099–1109PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Baliga MS (2010) Triphala, Ayurvedic formulation for treating and preventing cancer: a review. J Altern Complement Med 16(12):1301–1308PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Baliga MS, Dsouza JJ (2011) Amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn), a wonder berry in the treatment and prevention of cancer. Eur J Cancer Prev 20(3):225–239PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Banu SM, Selvendiran K, Singh JP, Sakthisekaran D (2004) Protective effect of Emblica officinalis ethanolic extract against 7,12-dimethylbenz(a) anthracene (DMBA) induced genotoxicity in Swiss albino mice. Hum Exp Toxicol 23(11):527–531PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Barthakur NN, Arnold NP (1991) Chemical analysis of the emblic (Phyllanthus emblica L.) and its potential as a food source. Sci Hort 47(1–2):99–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bhattachary SK, Bhattacharya D, Muruganandam AV (2000a) Effect of Emblica officinalis tannoids on a rat model of tardive dyskinesia. Indian J Exp Biol 38(9):945–947PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Bhattacharya A, Chatterjee A, Ghosal S, Bhattacharya SK (1999) Antioxidant activity of active tannoid principles of Emblica officinalis (amla). Indian J Exp Biol 37(7):676–680PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Bhattacharya A, Ghosal S, Bhattacharya SK (2000b) Antioxidant activity of tannoid principles of Emblica officinalis (amla) in chronic stress induced changes in rat brain. Indian J Exp Biol 38(9):877–880PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Bhattacharya SK, Bhattacharya A, Sairam K, Ghosal S (2002) Effect of bioactive tannoid principles of Emblica officinalis on ischemia-reperfusion-induced oxidative stress in rat heart. Phytomedicine 9(2):171–174PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bhattacharya SK, Chaudhuri SR, Chattopadhyay S, Bandyopadhyay SK (2007) Healing properties of some Indian medicinal plants against indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration of rats. J Clin Biochem Nutr 41(2):106–114PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Biswas S, Talukder G, Sharma A (1999) Protection against cytotoxic effects of arsenic by dietary supplementation with crude extract of Emblica officinalis fruit. Phytother Res 13(6):513–516PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Brand Miller J, James KW, Maggiore P (1993) Tables of composition of Australian aboriginal foods. Aboriginal Studies Press, CanberraGoogle Scholar
  22. Burkill IH (1966) A dictionary of the economic products of the Malay Peninsula. Revised reprint, 2 vols. Ministry of Agriculture and Co-operatives, Kuala Lumpur. vol 1 (A–H), pp 1–1240, vol 2 (I–Z), pp 1241–2444Google Scholar
  23. Calixto JB, Santos AR, Cechinel-Filho V, Yunes RA (1998) A review of the plants of the genus Phyllanthus: their chemistry, pharmacology and therapeutic potential. Med Res Rev 18(4):225–258PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Chakraborty D, Verma R (2009) Spermatotoxic effect of ochratoxin and its amelioration by Emblica officinalis aqueous extract. Acta Pol Pharm 66(6):689–695PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Chakraborty D, Verma R (2010) Ameliorative effect of Emblica officinalis aqueous extract on ochratoxin-induced lipid peroxidation in the kidney and liver of mice. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 23(1):63–73PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Chalise JP, Acharya K, Gurung N, Bhusal RP, Gurung R, Skalko-Basnet N, Basnet P (2010) Antioxidant activity and polyphenol content in edible wild fruits from Nepal. Int J Food Sci Nutr 61(4):425–432PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Chanvorachote P, Pongrakhananon V, Luanpitpong S, Chanvorachote B, Wannachaiyasit S, Nimmannit U (2010) Type I pro-collagen promoting and anti-collagenase activities of Phyllanthus emblica extract in mouse fibroblasts. J Cosmet Sci 60(4):395–403Google Scholar
  28. Chatterjee A, Chattopadhyay S, Bandyopadhyay SK (2011) Biphasic effect of Phyllanthus emblica L. extract on NSAID-induced ulcer: an antioxidative trail weaved with immunomodulatory effect. Evid Based Compl Alt Med 2011:146808Google Scholar
  29. Chaudhuri RK (2002) Emblica cascading antioxidant: a novel natural skin care ingredient. Skin Pharmacol Appl Skin Physiol 15(5):374–380PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Chen TS, Liou SY, Chang YL (2008) Antioxidant evaluation of three adaptogen extracts. Am J Chin Med 36(6):1209–1217PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Chen TS, Liou SY, Chang YL (2009) Supplementation of Emblica officinalis (Amla) extract reduces oxidative stress in uremic patients. Am J Chin Med 37(1):19–25PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Chopra RN, Nayar SL, Chopra IC (1986) Glossary of Indian medicinal plants. (Including the supplement). Council Scientific Industrial Research, New Delhi, 330 ppGoogle Scholar
  33. Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) (1950) The wealth of India: a dictionary of Indian raw materials and industrial products, vol 2, Raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  34. D’Souza P, Amit A, Saxena VS, Bagchi D, Bagchi M, Stohs S (2004) Antioxidant properties of Aller-7, a novel polyherbal formulation for allergic rhinitis. J Drugs Exp Clin Res 30(3):99–109Google Scholar
  35. Deep G, Dhiman M, Rao AR, Kale RK (2005) Chemopreventive potential of Triphala (a composite Indian drug) on benzo(a)pyrene induced forestomach tumorigenesis in murine tumor model system. J Exp Clin Cancer Res 24(4):555–563PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Dhanalakshmi S, Devi RS, Srikumar R, Manikandan S, Thangaraj R (2007) Protective effect of Triphala on cold stress-induced behavioral and biochemical abnormalities in rats. Yakugaku Zasshi 127(11):1863–1867PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Dhir H, Agarwal K, Sharma A, Talukder G (1991) Modifying role of Phyllanthus emblica and ascorbic acid against nickel clastogenicity in mice. Cancer Lett 59(1):9–18PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Dhir H, Roy AK, Sharma A (1993) Relative efficiency of Phyllanthus emblica fruit extract and ascorbic acid in modifying lead and aluminium-induced sister-chromatid exchanges in mouse bone marrow. Environ Mol Mutagen 21(3):229–236PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Duan W, Yu Y, Zhang L (2005) Antiatherogenic effects of Phyllanthus emblica associated with corilagin and its analogue. Yakugaku Zasshi 125(7):587–591PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. El-Desouky SK, Ryu SY, Kim YK (2008) A new cytotoxic acylated apigenin glucoside from Phyllanthus emblica L. Nat Prod Res 22(1):91–95PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. el-Mekkawy S, Meselhy MR, Kusumoto IT, Kadota S, Hattori M, Namba T (1995) Inhibitory effects of Egyptian folk medicines on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) reverse transcriptase. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 43(4):641–648CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Fujii T, Wakaizumi M, Ikami T, Saito M (2008) Amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) extract promotes procollagen production and inhibits matrix metalloproteinase-1 in human skin fibroblasts. J Ethnopharmacol 119(1):53–57PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Ganju L, Karan D, Chanda S, Srivastava KK, Sawhney RC, Selvamurthy W (2003) Immunomodulatory effects of agents of plant origin. Biomed Pharmacother 57(7):296–300PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Golechha M, Bhatia J, Arya DS (2010) Hydroalcoholic extract of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. affords protection against PTZ-induced seizures, oxidative stress and cognitive impairment in rats. Indian J Exp Biol 48(5):474–478PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Gopalan G, Rama Sastri BV, Balasubramanian SC (2002) Nutritive value of Indian foods. National Institute of Nutrition, Indian Council of Medical Research, HyderabadGoogle Scholar
  46. Goud MJ, Komraiah A, Rao KN, Ragan A, Raju VS, Charya MA (2008) Antibacterial activity of some folklore medicinal plants from South India. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med 5(4):421–426PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Grover IS, Kaur S (1989) Effect of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. (Indian gooseberry) fruit extract on sodium azide and 4-nitro-o-phenylenediamine induced mutagenesis in Salmonella typhimurium. Indian J Exp Biol 27(3):207–209PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Gulati RK, Agarwal S, Agrawal SS (1995) Hepatoprotective studies on Phyllanthus emblica Linn. and quercetin. Indian J Exp Biol 33(4):261–268PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Haque R, Bin-Hafeez B, Ahmad I, Parvez S, Pandey S, Raisuddin S (2001) Protective effects of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. in cyclophosphamide-treated mice. Hum Exp Toxicol 20(12):643–650PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hari Kumar KB, Sabu MC, Lima PS, Kuttan R (2004) Modulation of haematopoetic system and antioxidant enzymes by Emblica officinalis Gaertn. and its protective role against gamma-radiation induced damages in mice. J Radiat Res (Tokyo) 45(4):549–555CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hu JF (1990) Inhibitory effects of Phyllanthus emblica juice on formation of N-nitrosomorpholine in vitro and N-nitrosoproline in rat and human. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi 24(3):132–135 (In Chinese)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Ihantola-Vormisto A, Summanen J, Kankaanranta H, Vuorela H, Asmawi ZM, Moilanen E (1997) Anti-inflammatory activity of extracts from leaves of Phyllanthus emblica. Planta Med 63(6):518–524PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Jacob A, Pandey M, Kapoor S, Saroja R (1988) Effect of the Indian gooseberry (amla) on serum cholesterol levels in men aged 35–55 years. Eur J Clin Nutr 42(11):939–944PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Jagetia GC (2007) Radioprotective potential of plants and herbs against the effects of ionizing radiation. J Clin Biochem Nutr 40(2):74–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Jansen PCM (2005) Phyllanthus emblica L. [Internet] record from protabase. In: Jansen, PCM, Cardon D (eds) PROTA (Plant Resources of Tropical Africa/Ressources végétales de l’Afrique tropicale), Wageningen, Netherlands.
  56. Jeena KJ, Joy KL, Kuttan R (1999) Effect of Emblica officinalis. Phyllanthus amarus and Picrorrhiza kurroa on N-nitrosodiethylamine induced hepatocarcinogenesis. Cancer Lett 136(1):11–16PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Jindal A, Soyal D, Sharma A, Goyal PK (2009) Protective effect of an extract of Emblica officinalis against radiation-induced damage in mice. Integr Cancer Ther 8(1):98–105PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Jose JK, Kuttan R (1995) Antioxidant activity of Emblica officinalis. J Clin Biochem Nutr 19:63–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Jose JK, Kuttan R (2000) Hepatoprotective activity of Emblica officinalis and Chyavanaprash. J Ethnophar­macol 72(1–2):135–140PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Jose JK, Kuttan G, Kuttan R (2001) Antitumour activity of Emblica officinalis. J Ethnopharmacol 75(2–3): 65–69PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Kaur S, Arora S, Kaur K, Kumar S (2002) The in vitro antimutagenic activity of Triphala – an Indian herbal drug. Food Chem Toxicol 40(4):527–534PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Kaur S, Michael H, Arora S, Härkönen PL, Kumar S (2005) The in vitro cytotoxic and apoptotic activity of Triphala – an Indian herbal drug. J Ethnopharmacol 97(1):15–20PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Kennard WC, Winters HF (1960) Some fruits and nuts for the tropics. USDA Agric Res Serv Misc Publ 801:1–135Google Scholar
  64. Khan MT, Lampronti I, Martello D, Bianchi N, Jabbar S, Choudhuri MS, Datta BK, Gambari R (2002) Identification of pyrogallol as an antiproliferative compound present in extracts from the medicinal plant Emblica officinalis: effects on in vitro cell growth of human tumor cell lines. Int J Oncol 21(1):187–192PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Khopde SM, Priyadarsini KI, Mohan H, Gawandi VB, Satav JG, Yakhmi JV, Banavaliker MM, Biyani MK, Pittal JP (2001) Characterizing the antioxidant activity of Amla (Phyllanthus emblica) extract. Curr Sci 81:185–190Google Scholar
  66. Kim HJ, Yokozawa T, Kim HY, Tohda C, Rao TP, Juneja LR (2005) Influence of amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) on hypercholesterolemia and lipid peroxidation in cholesterol-fed rats. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 51(6):413–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Kim HY, Okubo T, Juneja LR, Yokozawa T (2010) The protective role of amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) against fructose-induced metabolic syndrome in a rat model. Br J Nutr 103(4):502–512PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Kirtikar KR, Basu BD (1975) Indian medicinal plants. 4 vols. 2nd edn. Jayyed Press, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  69. Krishnaveni M, Mirunalini S (2010) Therapeutic potential of Phyllanthus emblica (amla): the ayurvedic wonder. J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol 21(1):93–105PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Krishnaveni M, Mirunalini S, Karthishwaran K, Dhamodharan G (2010) Antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic properties of Phyllanthus emblica Linn. (Euphorbiaceae) on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Pak J Nutr 9(1):43–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Kumar NP, Annamalai AR, Thakur RS (2009) Antinociceptive property of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. (Amla) in high fat diet-fed/low dose streptozotocin induced diabetic neuropathy in rats. Indian J Exp Biol 47(9):737–742PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Kumaran A, Karunakaran R (2006) Nitric oxide radical scavenging active components from Phyllanthus emblica L. J Plant Foods Hum Nutr 61(1):1–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Kusirisin W, Srichairatanakool S, Lerttrakarnnon P, Lailerd N, Suttajit M, Jaikang C, Chaiyasut C (2009) Antioxidative activity, polyphenolic content and anti-glycation effect of some Thai medicinal plants traditionally used in diabetic patients. Med Chem 5(2):139–147PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Lee CY, Peng WH, Cheng HY, Chen FN, Lai MT, Chiu TH (2006) Hepatoprotective effect of Phyllanthus in Taiwan on acute liver damage induced by carbon tetrachloride. Am J Chin Med 34(3):471–482PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Liu X, Zhao M, Wang J, Yang B, Jiang Y (2008) Antioxidant activity of methanolic extract of emblica fruit (Phyllanthus emblica L.) from six regions in China. J Food Compost Anal 21(3):219–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Liu Q, Wang YF, Chen RJ, Zhang MY, Wang YF, Yang CR, Zhang YJ (2009a) Anti-coxsackie virus B3 norsesquiterpenoids from the roots of Phyllanthus emblica. J Nat Prod 72(5):969–972PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Liu XL, Zhao MM, Luo W, Yang B, Jiang YM (2009b) Identification of volatile components in Phyllanthus emblica L. and their antimicrobial activity. J Med Food 12(2):423–428PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Madhavi D, Devil KR, Rao KK, Reddy PP (2007) Modulating effect of Phyllanthus fruit extract against lead genotoxicity in germ cells of mice. J Environ Biol 28(1):115–117PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Majeed M, Bhat B, Anand S, Sivakumar A, Paliwal P, Geetha KG (2011) Inhibition of UV-induced ROS and collagen damage by Phyllanthus emblica extract in normal human dermal fibroblasts. J Cosmet Sci 62(1):49–56PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Mathur R, Sharma A, Dixit VP, Varma M (1996) Hypolipidaemic effect of fruit juice of Emblica officinalis in cholesterol-fed rabbits. J Ethnopharmacol 50(2):61–68PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Mehmood MH, Siddiqi HS, Gilani AH (2011) The antidiarrheal and spasmolytic activities of Phyllanthus emblica are mediated through dual blockade of muscarinic receptors and Ca2+ channels. J Ethnopharmacol 133(2):856–865PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Mehta S, Singh RK, Jaiswal D, Rai PK, Watal G (2009) Anti-diabetic activity of Emblica officinalis in animal models. Pharm Biol 47(11):1050–1055CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Ministry of Public Health (1970) Tables of nutrition values in Thai food per 100 gm of edible portion. Office of the Prime Minister, Royal Thai Government, BangkokGoogle Scholar
  84. Mir AI, Kumar B, Tasduq SA, Gupta DK, Bhardwaj S, Johri RK (2007) Reversal of hepatotoxin-induced pre-fibrogenic events by Emblica officinalis–a histological study. Indian J Exp Biol 45(7):626–629PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Mishra M, Pathak UN, Khan AB (1981) Emblica officinalis Gaertn and serum cholesterol level in experimental rabbits. Br J Exp Pathol 62(5):526–528PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Molesworth Allen B (1967) Malayan fruits: an introduction to the cultivated species. Moore, Singapore, 245 ppGoogle Scholar
  87. Morton JF (1960) The emblic (Phyllanthus emblica L.). Econ Bot 14:119–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Morton JF (1987) Emblic. In: Fruits of warm climates. Julia F. Morton, Miami, pp 213–217Google Scholar
  89. Mythilypriya R, Shanthi P, Sachdanandam P (2007a) Analgesic, antipyretic and Ulcerogenic properties of an indigenous formulation – Kalpaamruthaa. Phytother Res 21(6):574–578PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Mythilypriya R, Shanthi P, Sachdanandam P (2007b) Restorative and synergistic efficacy of Kalpaamruthaa, a modified Siddha preparation, on an altered antioxidant status in adjuvant induced arthritic rat model. Chem Biol Interact 168(3):193–202PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Mythilypriya R, Shanthi P, Sachdanandam P (2008) Synergistic effect of Kalpaamruthaa on antiarthritic and antiinflammatory properties – its mechanism of action. Inflammation 31(6):391–398PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Naik GH, Priyadarsini KI, Bhagirathi RG, Mishra B, Mishra KP, Banavalikar MM, Mohan H (2005) In vitro antioxidant studies and free radical reactions of triphala, an ayurvedic formulation and its constituents. Phytother Res 19(7):582–586PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Nandi P, Talukder G, Sharma A (1997) Dietary chemoprevention of clastogenic effects of 3,4-benzo(a)pyrene by Emblica officinalis Gaertn. fruit extract. Br J Cancer 76(10):1279–1283PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Ngamkitidechakul C, Jaijoy K, Hansakul P, Soonthornchareonnon N, Sireeratawong S (2010) Antitumour effects of Phyllanthus emblica L.: induction of cancer cell apoptosis and inhibition of in vivo tumour promotion and in vitro invasion of human cancer cells. Phytother Res 24:1405–1413PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Nicolis E, Lampronti I, Dechecchi MC, Borgatti M, Tamanini A, Bianchi N, Bezzerri V, Mancini I, Grazia Giri M, Rizzotti P, Gambari R, Cabrini G (2008) Pyrogallol, an active compound from the medicinal plant Emblica officinalis, regulates expression of pro-inflammatory genes in bronchial epithelial cells. Int Immunopharmacol 8(12):1672–1680PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Niwano Y, Saito K, Yoshizaki F, Kohno M, Ozawa T (2011) Extensive screening for herbal extracts with potent antioxidant properties. J Clin Biochem Nutr 48(1):78–84PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Nosál’ová G, Mokrý J, Hassan KM (2003) Antitussive activity of the fruit extract of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. (Euphorbiaceae). Phytomedicine 10(6–7):583–589PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Ochse JJ, van den Brink RCB (1980) Vegetables of the Dutch Indies, 3rd edn. Ascher & Co., Amsterdam, 1016 ppGoogle Scholar
  99. Panchabhai TS, Ambarkhane SV, Joshi AS, Samant BD, Rege NN (2008) Protective effect of Tinospora cordifolia Phyllanthus emblica and their combination against antitubercular drugs induced hepatic damage: an experimental study. Phytother Res 22(5):646–650PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Panda S, Kar A (2003) Fruit extract of Emblica officinalis ameliorates hyperthyroidism and hepatic lipid peroxidation in mice. Pharmazie 58(10):753–755PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Pemminati S, Nair V, Dorababu P, Gopalakrishna HN, Pai MRSM (2009) Effect of aqueous fruit extract of Emblica officinalis on haloperidol induced catalepsy in albino mice. J Clin Diagn Res 3:1657–1662Google Scholar
  102. Penolazzi L, Lampronti I, Borgatti M, Khan MT, Zennaro M, Piva R, Gambari R (2008) Induction of apoptosis of human primary osteoclasts treated with extracts from the medicinal plant Emblica officinalis. BMC Complement Altern Med 8:59PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Perianayagam J, Sharma S, Joseph A, Christina A (2004) Evaluation of anti-pyretic and analgesic activity of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. J Ethnopharm 95:83–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Perianayagam JB, Narayanan S, Gnanasekar G, Pandurangan A, Raja S, Rajagopal K, Rajesh R, Vijayarajkumar P, Vijayakumar SG (2005) Evaluation of antidiarrheal potential of Emblica officinalis. Pharm Biol 43(4):373–377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Pinmai K, Chunlaratthanabhorn S, Ngamkitidechakul C, Soonthornchareon N, Hahnvajanawong C (2008) Synergistic growth inhibitory effects of Phyllanthus emblica and Terminalia bellerica extracts with ­conventional cytotoxic agents: doxorubicin and cisplatin against human hepatocellular carcinoma and lung cancer cells. World J Gastroenterol 14(10):1491–1497PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Pinmai K, Hiriote W, Soonthornchareonnon N, Jongsakul K, Sireeratawong S, Tor-Udom S (2010) In vitro and in vivo antiplasmodial activity and cytotoxicity of water extracts of Phyllanthus emblica, Terminalia chebula, and Terminalia bellerica. J Med Assoc Thai 93(suppl7):S120–S126PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Poltanov EA, Shikov AN, Dorman HJ, Pozharitskaya ON, Makarov VG, Tikhonov VP, Hiltunen R (2009) Chemical and antioxidant evaluation of Indian gooseberry (Emblica officinalis Gaertn., syn. Phyllanthus emblica L.) supplements. Phytother Res 23(9):1309–1315PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Pozharitskaya ON, Ivanova SA, Shikov AN, Makarov VG (2007) Separation and evaluation of free radical-scavenging activity of phenol components of Emblica officinalis extract by using an HPTLC-DPPH method. J Sep Sci 30(9):1250–1254PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Pramyothin P, Samosorn P, Poungshompoo S, Chaichantipyuth C (2006) The protective effects of Phyllanthus emblica Linn. extract on ethanol induced rat hepatic injury. J Ethnopharmacol 107(3):361–364PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Pratibha N, Saxena VS, Amit A, D’Souza P, Bagchi M, Bagchi D (2004) Anti-inflammatory activities of Aller-7, a novel polyherbal formulation for allergic rhinitis. Int J Tissue React 26(1–2):43–51PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Purseglove JW (1968) Tropical crops: dicotyledons, 1 and 2nd edn. Longman, London, 719 ppGoogle Scholar
  112. Qureshi SA, Asad W, Sultana V (2009) The effect of Phyllantus emblica Linn. on Type - II Diabetes, triglycerides and liver – specific enzyme. Pak J Nutr 8(2):125–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Rahman S, Akbor MM, Howlader A, Jabbar A (2009) Antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity of the alkaloids of Amlaki (Emblica officinalis). Pak J Biol Sci 12(16):1152–1155PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Rajak S, Banerjee SK, Sood S, Dinda AK, Gupta YK, Gupta SK, Maulik SK (2004) Emblica officinalis causes myocardial adaptation and protects against oxidative stress in ischemic-reperfusion injury in rats. Phytother Res 18(1):54–60PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Rajeshkumar NV, Pillai MR, Kuttan R (2003) Induction of apoptosis in mouse and human carcinoma cell lines by Emblica officinalis polyphenols and its effect on chemical carcinogenesis. J Exp Clin Cancer Res 22(2):201–212PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Rajeshkumar NV, Therese M, Kuttan R (2001) Emblica officinalis fruits afford protection against experimental gastric ulcers in rats. Pharm Biol 39(5):375–380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Ramprasath VR, Kumar BS, Shanthi P, Sachdanandam P (2006) Therapeutic efficacy of Kalpaamruthaa on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in experimental mammary carcinoma in rats. J Health Sci 52(6):748–757CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Rao TP, Sakaguchi N, Juneja LR, Wada E, Yokozawa T (2005) Amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) extracts reduce oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J Med Food 8(3):362–368PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Reddy VD, Padmavathi P, Paramahamsa M, Varadacharyulu N (2009) Modulatory role of Emblica officinalis against alcohol induced biochemical and biophysical changes in rat erythrocyte membranes. Food Chem Toxicol 47(8):1958–1963PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Rege NN, Thatte UM, Dahanukar SA (1999) Adaptogenic properties of six rasayana herbs used in Ayurvedic medicine. Phytother Res 13(4):275–291PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Rehman HU, Yasin KA, Choudhary MA, Khaliq N, Choudhary MI, Malik S (2007) Studies on the chemical constituents of Phyllanthus emblica. Nat Prod Res 21(9):775–781CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Roy AK, Dhir H, Sharma A (1992) Modification of metal-induced micronuclei formation in mouse bone marrow erythrocytes by Phyllanthus fruit extract and ascorbic acid. Toxicol Lett 62(1):9–17PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Saeed S, Tariq P (2007) Antibacterial activities of Emblica officinalis and Coriandrum sativum against Gram negative urinary pathogens. Pak J Pharm Sci 20(1):32–35PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Sai Ram M, Neetu D, Deepti P, Vandana M, Ilavazhagan G, Kumar D, Selvamurthy W (2003) Cytoprotective activity of Amla (Emblica officinalis) against chromium (VI) induced oxidative injury in murine macrophages. Phytother Res 17(4):430–433PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Sai Ram M, Neetu D, Yogesh B, Anju B, Dipti P, Pauline T, Sharma SK, Sarada SK, Ilavazhagan G, Kumar D, Selvamurthy W (2002) Cyto-protective and immunomodulating properties of Amla (Emblica officinalis) on lymphocytes: an in-vitro study. J Ethnopharmacol 81(1):5–10PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Saini A, Sharma S, Chhibber S (2008) Protective efficacy of Emblica officinalis against Klebsiella pneumoniae induced pneumonia in mice. Indian J Med Res 128(2):188–193PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Sairam K, Rao ChV, Babu MD, Kumar KV, Agrawal VKK, Goel RK (2002) Antiulcerogenic effect of methanolic extract of Emblica officinalis: an experimental study. J Ethnopharmacol 82(1):1–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Saito Y, Kohno M, Yoshizaki F, Niwano Y (2008a) Antioxidant properties of herbal extracts selected from screening for potent scavenging activity against superoxide anions. J Sci Food Agr 88(15):2707–2712CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Saito K, Kohno M, Yoshizaki F, Niwano Y (2008b) Extensive screening for edible herbal extracts with potent scavenging activity against superoxide anions. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 63(2):65–70PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Sancheti G, Jindal A, Kumari R, Goyal PK (2005) Chemopreventive action of Emblica officinalis on skin carcinogenesis in mice. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 6(2):197–201PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Sandhya T, Lathika KM, Pandey BN, Bhilwade HN, Chaubey RC, Priyadarsini KI, Mishra KP (2006b) Protection against radiation oxidative damage in mice by Triphala. Mutat Res 609(1):17–25PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Sandhya T, Lathika KM, Pandey BN, Mishra KP (2006a) Potential of traditional ayurvedic formulation, Triphala, as a novel anticancer drug. Cancer Lett 231(2):206–214PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Sandhya T, Mishra KP (2006) Cytotoxic response of breast cancer cell lines, MCF 7 and T 47 D to triphala and its modification by antioxidants. Cancer Lett 238(2):304–313PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Saravanan S, Srikumar R, Manikandan S, Jeya Parthasarathy N, Sheela Devi R (2007) Hypolipidemic effect of triphala in experimentally induced hypercholesteremic rats. Yakugaku Zasshi 127(2):385–388PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Saw LG, LaFrankie JV, Kochummen KM, Yap SK (1991) Fruit trees in a Malaysian rain forest. Econ Bot 45(1):120–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Scartezzini P, Antognoni F, Raggi MA, Poli F, Sabbioni C (2006) Vitamin C content and antioxidant activity of the fruit and of the Ayurvedic preparation of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. J Ethnopharmacol 104(1–2):113–118PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Sharma A, Sharma MK, Kumar M (2009) Modulatory role of Emblica officinalis fruit extract against arsenic induced oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice. Chem Biol Interac 180(1):20–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Shi Y, Sahu RP, Srivastava SK (2008) Triphala inhibits both in vitro and in vivo xenograft growth of pancreatic tumor cells by inducing apoptosis. BMC Cancer 8:294PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Shukla V, Vashistha M, Singh SN (2009) Evaluation of antioxidant profile and activity of amalaki (Emblica officinalis), spirulina and wheat grass. Indian J Clin Biochem 24(1):70–75CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Singh I, Sharma A, Nunia V, Goyal PK (2005) Radioprotection of Swiss albino mice by Emblica officinalis. Phytother Res 19(5):444–446PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Singh I, Soyal D, Goyal PK (2006) Emblica officinalis (Linn.) fruit extract provides protection against radiation-induced hematological and biochemical alterations in mice. J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol 25(4):643–654PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Srikumar R, Parthasarathy NJ, Devi RS (2005) Immunomodulatory activity of Triphala on neutrophil functions. Biol Pharm Bull 28(8):1398–1403PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Srikumar R, Parthasarathy NJ, Shankar EM, Manikandan S, Vijayakumar R, Thangaraj R, Vijayananth K, Sheeladevi R, Rao UA (2007) Evaluation of the growth inhibitory activities of Triphala against common bacterial isolates from HIV infected patients. Phytother Res 21(5):476–480PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Subhadrabanhdu S (2001) Under utilized tropical fruits of Thailand. FAO Rap publication 2001/26. 70 ppGoogle Scholar
  145. Sultana S, Ahmed S, Sharma S, Jahangir T (2004) Emblica officinalis reverses thioacetamide-induced oxidative stress and early promotional events of primary hepatocarcinogenesis. J Pharm Pharmacol 56(12):1573–1579PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Sultana S, Ahmed S, Khan N, Jahangir T (2005) Effect of Emblica officinalis (Gaertn) on CCl4 induced hepatic toxicity and DNA synthesis in Wistar rats. Indian J Exp Biol 43(5):430–436PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Sultana S, Ahmed S, Jahangir T (2008) Emblica officinalis and hepatocarcinogenesis: a chemopreventive study in Wistar rats. J Ethnopharmacol 118(1):1–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Sumantran VN, Kulkarni A, Chandwaskar R, Harsulkar A, Patwardhan B, Chopra A, Wagh UV (2008) Chondroprotective potential of fruit extracts of Phyllanthus emblica in osteoarthritis. Evid Based Compl Alt Med 5(3):329–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Sumitra M, Manikandan P, Gayathri VS, Mahendran P, Suguna L (2009) Emblica officinalis exerts wound healing action through up-regulation of collagen and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2). Wound Repair Regen 17(1):99–107PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Suresh K, Vasudevan DM (1994) Augmentation of murine natural killer cell and antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity activities by Phyllanthus emblica, a new immunomodulator. J Ethnopharmacol 44(1):55–60PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Suryanarayana K, Kumar PA, Saraswat M, Petrash JM, Reddy GB (2004) Inhibition of aldose reductase by tannoid principles of Emblica officinalis: implications for the prevention of sugar cataract. Mol Vis 12(10):148–154Google Scholar
  152. Suryanarayana P, Saraswat M, Petrash JM, Reddy GB (2007) Emblica officinalis and its enriched tannoids delay streptozotocin-induced diabetic cataract in rats. Mol Vis 13:1291–1297PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Talwar GP, Dar SA, Rai MK, Reddy KV, Mitra D, Kulkarni SV, Doncel GF, Buck CB, Schiller JT, Muralidhar S, Bala M, Agrawal SS, Bansal K, Verma JK (2008) A novel polyherbal microbicide with inhibitory effect on bacterial, fungal and viral genital pathogens. Int J Antimicrob Agents 32(2):180–185PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Tasduq SA, Kaisar P, Gupta DK, Kapahi BK, Maheshwari HS, Jyotsna S, Johri RK (2005a) Protective effect of a 50% hydroalcoholic fruit extract of Emblica officinalis against anti-tuberculosis drugs induced liver toxicity. Phytother Res 19(3):193–197PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Tasduq SA, Mondhe DM, Gupta DK, Baleshwar M, Johri RK (2005b) Reversal of fibrogenic events in liver by Emblica officinalis (fruit), an Indian natural drug. Biol Pharm Bull 28(7):1304–1306PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Thakur CP (1985) Emblica officinalis reduces serum, aortic and hepatic cholesterol in rabbits. Experientia 41(3):423–424PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Thorat SP, Rege NN, Naik AS, Thatte UM, Joshi A, Panicker KN, Bapat RD, Dahanukar SA (1995) Emblica officinalis: a novel therapy for acute pancreatitis–an experimental study. HPB Surg 9(1):25–30PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. van Holthoon FL (1999) Phyllanthus L. In: de Padua LS, Bunyapraphatsara N, Lemmens RHMJ (eds) Plant resources of South-East Asia No 12(1). Medicinal and poisonous plants 1. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, pp 381–392Google Scholar
  159. van Schaik-van Banning AJJ (1991) Phyllanthus emblica L. In: Lemmens RHMJ, Wulijarni-Soetjipto N (eds) Plant resources of South-East Asia No 3. Dye and tannin producing plants. Pudoc, Wageningen, pp 105–108Google Scholar
  160. Vasudevan M, Parle M (2007) Effect of Anwala churna (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.): an ayurvedic preparation on memory deficit rats. Yakugaku Zasshi 127(10):1701–1707PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Veena K, Shanthi P, Sachdanandam P (2006a) Anticancer effect of Kalpaamruthaa on mammary carcinoma in rats with reference to glycoprotein components, lysosomal and marker enzymes. Biol Pharm Bull 29(3):565–569PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Veena K, Shanthi P, Sachdanandam P (2006b) Protective effect of kalpaamruthaa on altered glycoprotein component levels and membrane stability in mammary carcinoma. Int J Cancer Res 2(4):315–329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Veena K, Shanthi P, Sachdanandam P (2006c) The biochemical alterations following administration of Kalpaamruthaa and Semecarpus anacardium in mammary carcinoma. Chem Biol Interac 161(1):69–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Verma R, Chakraborty D (2008a) Alterations in DNA. RNA and protein contents in liver and kidney of mice treated with ochratoxin and their amelioration by Emblica officinalis aqueous extract. Acta Pol Pharm 65(1):3–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Verma R, Chakraborty D (2008b) Emblica officinalis aqueous extract ameliorates ochratoxin-induced lipid peroxidation in the testis of mice. Acta Pol Pharm 65(2):187–194PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Wattanapitayakul SK, Chularojmontri L, Herunsalee A, Charuchongkolwongse S, Niumsakul S, Bauer JA (2005) Screening of antioxidants from medicinal plants for cardioprotective effect against doxorubicin toxicity. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 96(1):80–87PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Xiang YF, Ju HQ, Li S, Zhang YJ, Yang CR, Wang YF (2010) Effects of 1,2,4,6-tetra-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose from P. emblica on HBsAg and HBeAg secretion in HepG2.2.15 cell culture. Virol Sin 25(5):375–380PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Xiang YF, Pei Y, Qu C, Lai Z, Ren Z, Yang K, Xiong S, Zhang Y, Yang C, Wang D, Liu Q, Kitazato K, Wang Y (2011) In vitro anti-herpes simplex virus activity of 1,2,4,6-tetra-O-galloyl-β-d-glucose from Phyllanthus emblica L. (Euphorbiaceae). Phytother Res doi: 10.1002/ptr.3368.Google Scholar
  169. Yokozawa T, Kim HY, Kim HJ, Okubo T, Chu DC, Juneja LR (2007a) Amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) prevents dyslipidaemia and oxidative stress in the ageing process. Br J Nutr 97(6):1187–1195PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Yokozawa T, Kim HY, Kim HJ, Tanaka T, Sugino H, Okubo T, Chu DC, Juneja LR (2007b) Amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) attenuates age-related renal dysfunction by oxidative stress. J Agric Food Chem 55(19):7744–7752PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Zhang YJ, Abe T, Tanaka T, Yang CR, Kouno I (2001a) Phyllanemblinins A-F, new ellagitannins from Phyllanthus emblica. J Nat Prod 64(12):1527–1532PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Zhang YJ, Abe T, Tanaka T, Yang CR, Kouno I (2002) Two new acylated flavanone glycosides from the leaves and branches of Phyllanthus emblica. Chem Pharm Bull(Tokyo) 50(6):841–843CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Zhang L-Z, Zhao W-H, Guo Y-J, Tu G-Z, Lin S, Xin L-G (2003) Studies on chemical constituents in fruits of Tibetan medicine Phyllanthus emblica. Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi 28(10):940–943, In ChinesePubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Zhang YJ, Tanaka T, Iwamoto Y, Yang CR, Kouno I (2000a) Novel norsesquiterpenoids from the roots of Phyllanthus emblica. J Nat Prod 63(11):1507–1510PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Zhang YJ, Tanaka T, Iwamoto Y, Yang CR, Kouno I (2000b) Phyllaemblic acid, a novel highly oxygenated norbisabolane from the roots of Phyllanthus emblica. Tetrahedron Lett 41(11):1781–1784CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Zhang YJ, Tanaka T, Iwamoto Y, Yang CR, Kouno I (2001b) Novel sesquiterpenoids from the roots of Phyllanthus emblica. J Nat Prod 64(7):870–873PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Zhang YJ, Tanaka T, Yang CR, Kouno I (2001c) New phenolic constituents from the fruit juice of Phyllanthus emblica. Chem Pharm Bull 49(5):537–540PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Zhang YJ, Nagao T, Tanaka T, Yang CR, Okabe H, Kouno I (2004) Antiproliferative activity of the main constituents from Phyllanthus emblica. Biol Pharm Bull 27(2):251–255PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Zhong ZG, Huang JL, Liang H, Zhong YN, Zhang WY, Wu DP, Zeng CL, Wang JS, Wei YH (2009) The effect of gallic acid extracted from leaves of Phyllanthus emblica on apoptosis of human hepatocellular carcinoma BEL-7404 cells. Zhong Yao Cai 32(7):1097–1101 (In Chinese)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Zhong ZG, Wu DP, Huang JL, Liang H, Pan ZH, Zhang WY, Lu HM (2011) Progallin A isolated from the acetic ether part of the leaves of Phyllanthus emblica L. induces apoptosis of human hepatocellular carcinoma BEL-7404 cells by up-regulation of Bax expression and down-regulation of Bcl-2 expression. J Ethnopharmacol 133(2):765–772PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.CanberraAustralia

Personalised recommendations