Biology and Management of Mealybugs in Vineyards

  • Kent M. Daane
  • Rodrigo P. P. Almeida
  • Vaughn A. Bell
  • James T. S. Walker
  • Marcos Botton
  • Majid Fallahzadeh
  • M. Mani
  • Jose Luis Miano
  • René Sforza
  • Vaughn M. Walton
  • Tania Zaviezo
Chapter

Abstract

Economic losses resulting from vineyard mealybug infestations have increased dramatically during the past decade. In response, there has been a cosmopolitan effort to improve control strategies and better understand mealybug biology and ecology, as well as their role as vectors of plant pathogens. Mealybugs are named for the powdery secretions covering their bodies. The most important vineyard mealybugs belong to the subfamily Pseudococcinae (Hardy et al. 2008). Although numerous mealybug species are found in vineyards, this chapter will cover only those that have risen to the level of primary pest. These are the grape mealybug, Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn), obscure mealybug, Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret), long-tailed mealybug, Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni Tozzetti), citrophilus mealybug, Pseudococcus calceolariae (Maskell), vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus (Signoret), citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso), pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green), and the newly identified Gills mealybug, Ferrisia gilli Gullan. Meanwhile in Brazil and India, Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell) and Xenococcus annandalei Silvestri respectively, feed on vine roots. Collectively, these species will be referred to as the vineyard mealybugs, although their host range is diverse and many are pests of other agricultural crops and ornamental plants (McKenzie 1967; Ben-Dov 1995).

Keywords

Natural Enemy Table Grape Wine Grape Mating Disruption Lady Beetle 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Abbas MST (1999) Studies on Dicrodiplosis manihoti Harris (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae), a common predator of mealybugs. J Pest Sci 72:133–134Google Scholar
  2. Addison P (2002) Chemical stem barriers for the control of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in vineyards. S Afr J Enol Vitic 23:1–8Google Scholar
  3. Addison P, Samways MJ (2000) A survey of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) that forage in vineyards in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. Afr Entomol 8:251–260Google Scholar
  4. Artigas JN (1994) Economic entomology: insects of agriculture, forestry, medical and veterinary, vol 1. Ediciones Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, Chile (in Spanish)Google Scholar
  5. Barrass IC, Jerie P, Ward SA (1994) Aerial dispersal of first- and second-instar longtailed mealybug, Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni Tozzetti) (Pseudococcidae: Hemiptera). Aust J Exp Agric 34:1205–1208Google Scholar
  6. Bartlett BR (1978) Pseudococcidae. In: Clausen CP (ed) Introduced parasites and predators of arthropod pests and weeds: a world review, Agricultural handbook no. 480. USDA, Washington, D.C, pp 137–170Google Scholar
  7. Becerra V, Gonzalez M, Herrera ME, Miano JL (2006) Population dynamics of vine mealybug Planococcus ficus sign. (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in vineyards. Rev Fac Cien Agrar Univ Nac Cuyo 38:1–6 (in Spanish)Google Scholar
  8. Bell VA, Bonfiglioli RGE, Walker JTS, Lo PL, Mackay JF, McGregor SE (2009) Grapevine leafroll associated virus 3 persistence in Vitis vinifera remnant roots. J Plant Pathol 91:527–533Google Scholar
  9. Ben-Dov Y (1995) A systematic catalogue of the mealybugs of the world (Insecta: Homoptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae, and Putoidae) with data on geographical distribution, host plants, biology, and economic importance. Intercept Ltd., HampshireGoogle Scholar
  10. Berlinger MJ (1977) The Mediterranean vine mealybug and its natural enemies in southern Israel. Phytoparasitica 5:3–14Google Scholar
  11. Bertazzon N, Borgo M, Vanin S, Angelini E (2010) Genetic variability and pathological properties of grapevine leafroll-associated virus 2 isolates. Eur J Plant Pathol 127:185–197Google Scholar
  12. Bertin S, Cavalieri V, Graziano C, Bosco D (2010) Survey of mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) vectors of Ampelovirus and Vitivirus in vineyards of northwestern Italy. Phytoparasitica 38:401–409Google Scholar
  13. Bierl-Leonhardt BA, Moreno DS, Schwarz M, Fargerlund J, Plimmer JR (1981) Isolation, identification and synthesis of the sex pheromone of the citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso). Tetrahedron Lett 22:389–392Google Scholar
  14. Blumberg D, Klein M, Mendel Z (1995) Response by encapsulation of four mealybug species (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) to parasitization by Anagyrus pseudococci. Phytoparasitica 23:157–163Google Scholar
  15. Cabaleiro C, Segura A (1997) Field transmission of grapevine leafroll associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3) by the mealybug Planococcus citri. Plant Dis 81:283–287Google Scholar
  16. Cabaleiro C, Segura A (2006) Temporal analysis of grapevine leafroll associated virus 3 epidemics. Eur J Plant Pathol 114:441–446Google Scholar
  17. Cabaleiro C, Couceiro C, Pereira S, Cid M, Barrasa M, Segura A (2008) Spatial analysis of epidemics of grapevine leafroll associated virus-3. Eur J Plant Pathol 121:121–130Google Scholar
  18. Cavalieri V, Mazzeo G, Garzia GT, Buonocore E, Russo A (2008) Identification of Planococcus ficus and Planococcus citri (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) by PCR-RFLP of COI gene. Zootaxa 1816:65–68Google Scholar
  19. Charles JG (1981) Distribution and life history of the long-tailed mealybug, Pseudococcus longispinus (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) in Auckland New Zealand vineyards. N Z J Zool 8:285–294Google Scholar
  20. Charles JG (1982) Economic damage and preliminary economic thresholds for mealybugs (Pseudococcus longispinus T-T.) in Auckland vineyards. N Z J Agric Res 25:415–420Google Scholar
  21. Charles JG (1985) Diadiplosis koebelei new record (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) a predator of Pseudococcus longispinus (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) from New Zealand. N Z J Zool 12:331–334Google Scholar
  22. Charles JG (1993) A survey of mealybugs and their natural enemies in horticultural crops in North Island, New Zealand, with implications for biological control. Biocontrol Sci Technol 3:405–418Google Scholar
  23. Charles JG (2011) Using parasitoids to infer a native range for the obscure mealybug, Pseudococcus viburni, in South America. BioControl 56:155–161Google Scholar
  24. Charles JG, Cohen D, Walker JTS, Forgie SA, Bell VA, Breen KC (2006) A review of the ecology of grapevine leafroll associated virus type 3 (GLRaV-3). N Z Plant Prot 59:330–337Google Scholar
  25. Charles JG, Froud KJ, van den Brink R, Allan DJ (2009) Mealybugs and the spread of grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3) in a New Zealand vineyard. Australas Plant Pathol 38:576–583Google Scholar
  26. Charles JG, Bell VA, Lo PL, Cole LM, Chhagan A (2010) Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) and their natural enemies in New Zealand vineyards from 1993–2009. N Z Entomol 33:84–91Google Scholar
  27. Cid M, Pereira S, Cabaleiro C, Segura A (2010) Citrus mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) movement and population dynamics in an arbor-trained vineyard. J Econ Entomol 103:619–630PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Clausen CP (1924) The parasites of Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn) in California (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea). Part II. biological studies and life histories. Univ Calif Publ Entomol 3:253–288Google Scholar
  29. Compere H, Smith HS (1932) The control of the citrophilus mealybug, Pseudococcus gahani, by Australian parasites. Hilgardia 6:585–618Google Scholar
  30. Cooper ML, Daane KM, Nelson EH, Varela LG, Battany MC, Tsutsui ND, Rust MK (2008) Liquid baits control Argentine ants sustainably in coastal vineyards. Calif Agric 62:177–183Google Scholar
  31. Cordo H, Logarzo G, Braun K, Di Iorio O (2004) Catalog of phytophagus insects of Argentina and their associated plants. Argentina Entomological Society, Buenos AiresGoogle Scholar
  32. Cucchi NJA, Becerra V (2009) Phytosanitary treatment manual for temperate crops under irrigation. Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria, Mendoza (in Spanish)Google Scholar
  33. da Silva EB, Mendel Z, Franco JC (2010) Can facultative parthenogenesis occur in biparental mealybug species? Phytoparasitica 38:19–21Google Scholar
  34. Daane KM, Malakar-Kuenen RD, Walton VM (2004) Temperature-dependent development of Anagyrus pseudococci (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) as a parasitoid of the vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). Biol Control 31:123–132Google Scholar
  35. Daane KM, Sime KR, Hogg BN, Bianchi ML, Cooper ML, Rust MK, Klotz JH (2006a) Effects of liquid insecticide baits on Argentine ants in California’s coastal vineyards. Crop Prot 25:592–603Google Scholar
  36. Daane KM, Bentley WJ, Walton VM, Malakar-Kuenen R, Millar JG, Ingels CA et al (2006b) New controls investigated for vine mealybug. Calif Agric 60:31–38Google Scholar
  37. Daane KM, Sime KR, Fallon J, Cooper ML (2007) Impacts of Argentine ants on mealybugs and their natural enemies in California’s coastal vineyards. Ecol Entomol 32:583–596Google Scholar
  38. Daane KM, Cooper ML, Triapitsyn SV, Andrews JW, Ripa R (2008a) Parasitoids of obscure mealybug, Pseudococcus viburni (Hem: Pseudococcidae) in California: establishment of Pseudaphycus flavidulus (Hym: Encyrtidae) and discussion of related parasitoid species. Biocontrol Sci Technol 18:43–57Google Scholar
  39. Daane KM, Cooper ML, Triapitsyn SV, Walton VM, Yokota GY, Haviland DR et al (2008b) Vineyard managers and researchers seek sustainable solutions for mealybugs, a changing pest complex. Calif Agric 62:167–176Google Scholar
  40. Daane KM, Bentley WJ, Smith RJ, Haviland DR, Weber E, Gispert C et al (2011) Vine mealybug. In: Bettiga L, Bentley WJ (eds) University of California grape pest management manual. University of California Press, Oakland, pp 125–135Google Scholar
  41. de Borbon CM, Gracia O, Talquenca GSG (2004) Mealybugs and grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 in vineyards of Mendoza, Argentina. Am J Enol Vitic 55:283–285Google Scholar
  42. DeBach P (1949) Population studies of the long-tailed mealybug and its natural enemies on citrus trees in southern California, 1946. Ecology 30:14–25Google Scholar
  43. Demontis MA, Ortu S, Cocco A, Lentini A, Migheli Q (2007) Diagnostic markers for Planococcus ficus (Signoret) and Planococcus citri (Risso) by random amplification of polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction and species-specific mitochondrial DNA primers. J Appl Entomol 131:59–64Google Scholar
  44. Doutt RL, Hagen KS (1950) Biological control measures applied against Pseudococcus maritimus on pears. J Econ Entomol 43:94–96Google Scholar
  45. Duso C (1989) Bioecological study on Planococcus ficus (Sign.) in Veneto. Boll Lab Entomol Agrar Filippo Silvestri 46:3–20Google Scholar
  46. El-Sayed AM, Unelius CR, Twidle A, Mitchell V, Manning LA, Cole L et al (2010) Chrysanthemyl 2-acetoxy-3-methylbutanoate: the sex pheromone of the citrophilous mealybug, Pseudococcus calceolariae. Tetrahedron Lett 51:1075–1078Google Scholar
  47. Engelbrecht DJ, Kasdorf GGF (1990) Transmission of grapevine leafroll disease and associated closteroviruses by the vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus. Phytophylactica 22:341–346Google Scholar
  48. Essig EO (1914) The mealybugs of California. Mon Bull Calif State Comm Hortic 3:18–143Google Scholar
  49. Fajardo TVM, Kuhn GB, Nickel O (2003) Viral diseases (in Portuguese). In: Fajardo TVM (ed) Grape processing: pant. Brasília: Embrapa Information Technology, vol 35. Fruits of Brazil, Assessoria de Comunicação Social, Brasília, pp 45–62Google Scholar
  50. Fallahzadeh M, Japoshvili G (2010) Checklist of Iranian encyrtids (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) with descriptions of new species. J Insect Sci 10:1–26Google Scholar
  51. Fallahzadeh M, Saghaei N, Ostovan H (2009) Seasonal abundance of Planococcus ficus (Hemiptera, Pseudococcidae) in Jahrom vineyards, Fars Province-IranFars Province-Iran. Plant Prot J (Iran) 1:263–276 (in Farsi)Google Scholar
  52. Fallahzadeh M, Kaydan MB, Kozar F (2010) Description of a new species of Chorizococcus (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae) infesting Vitis vinifera in Iran. Turk J Entomol 34:157–163Google Scholar
  53. Fallahzadeh M, Japoshvili G, Saghaei N, Daane KM (2011) Natural enemies of Planococcus ficus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Fars Province vineyards, Iran. Biocontrol Sci Technol 21:427–433Google Scholar
  54. Figadère BA, McElfresh JS, Borchardt D, Daane KM, Bentley W, Millar JG (2007) Trans-alpha-Necrodyl isobutyrate, the sex pheromone of the grape mealybug, Pseudococcus maritimus. Tetrahedron Lett 48:8434–8437Google Scholar
  55. Flaherty DL, Peacock WL, Bettiga L, Leavitt GM (1982) Chemicals losing effect against grape mealybug. Calif Agric 36:15–16Google Scholar
  56. Foldi I, Kozar F (2006) New species of Cataenococcus and Puto from Brazil and Venezuela, with data on others species (Hemiptera: Coccidea). Nouv Rev Entomol 22:305–312Google Scholar
  57. Franco JC, Gross S, da Silva EB, Suma P, Russo A, Mendel Z (2003) Is mass-trapping a feasible management tactic of the citrus mealybug in citrus orchards? An Inst Super Agron 49:353–367Google Scholar
  58. Franco JC, Silva EB, Cortegano E, Campos L, Branco M, Zada A, Mendel Z (2008) Kairomonal response of the parasitoid Anagyrus spec. nov. near pseudococci to the sex pheromone of the vine mealybug. Entomol Exp Appl 126:122–130Google Scholar
  59. Franco JC, Zada A, Mendel Z (2009) Novel approaches for the management of mealybug pests. In: Ishaaya I, Horowitz AR (eds) Biorational control of arthropod pests: application and resistance management programs. Springer, New York, NY, pp 233–278Google Scholar
  60. Frick KE (1952) The value of some organic phosphate insecticides in control of grape mealybug. J Econ Entomol 45:340–341Google Scholar
  61. Geiger CA, Daane KM (2001) Seasonal movement and distribution of the grape mealybug (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae): developing a sampling program for San Joaquin Valley vineyards. J Econ Entomol 94:291–301PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Golino DA, Sim ST, Gill R, Rowhani A (2002) California mealybugs can spread grapevine leafroll disease. Calif Agric 56:196–201Google Scholar
  63. Gonzalez RH (2003) Mealybugs of agricultural and quarantine importance in fruit orchards in Chile (Hem: Pseudococcidae). Rev Frutic 24:5–17Google Scholar
  64. Gonzalez RH, Volosky C (2005) Mealybugs and fruit moth: quarantine problems affecting fresh fruit exports. Rev Frutic 25:41–62Google Scholar
  65. Gonzalez RH, Poblete JG, Barria PG (2001) The tree fruit mealybug in Chile, Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret), (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). Rev Frutic 22:17–26Google Scholar
  66. Grasswitz TR, Burts EC (1995) Effect of native natural enemies on the population dynamics of the grape mealybug, Pseudococcus maritimus (Hom: Pseudococcidae), in the apple and pear orchards. Entomophaga 40:105–117Google Scholar
  67. Grasswitz TR, James DG (2008) Movement of grape mealybug, Pseudococcus maritimus, on and between host plants. Entomol Exp Appl 129:268–275Google Scholar
  68. Grimes EW, Cone WW (1985a) Life history, sex attraction, mating, and natural enemies of the grape mealybug, Pseudococcus maritimus (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). Ann Entomol Soc Am 78:554–558Google Scholar
  69. Grimes EW, Cone WW (1985b) Control of the grape mealybug, Pseudococcus maritimus, (Hom: Pseudococcidae), on Concord grape in Washington. J Entomol Soc B C 82:3–6Google Scholar
  70. Gullan PJ, Downie DA, Steffan SA (2003) A new pest species of the mealybug genus Ferrisia Fullaway (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) from the United States. Ann Entomol Soc Am 96:723–737Google Scholar
  71. Gutierrez AP, Daane KM, Ponti L, Walton VM, Ellis CK (2008) Prospective evaluation of the biological control of vine mealybug: refuge effects and climate. J Appl Ecol 45:524–536Google Scholar
  72. Habili N, Fazeli C, Ewart A, Hamilton R, Cirami R, Saldarelli P et al (1995) Natural spread and molecular analysis of grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 in Australia. Plant Dis 85:1418–1422Google Scholar
  73. Hardy NB, Gullan PJ, Hodgson CJ (2008) A classification of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) based on integrated molecular and morphological data. Syst Entomol 33:51–71Google Scholar
  74. Haviland DR, Bentley WJ, Daane KM (2005) Hot-water treatments for control of Planococcus ficus (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) on dormant grape cuttings. J Econ Entomol 98:1109–1115PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Herrera MG, Madariaga VM (2001) Presence and incidence of grapevine viruses in the central zone of Chile. Agric Tech 61:393–400 (in Spanish)Google Scholar
  76. Hinkens DM, McElfresh JS, Millar JG (2001) Identification and synthesis of the sex pheromone of the vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus. Tetrahedron Lett 42:1619–1621Google Scholar
  77. Islam KS, Copland MJW (2000) Influence of egg load and oviposition time interval on the host discrimination and offspring survival of Anagyrus pseudococci (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), a solitary endoparasitoid of citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). Bull Entomol Res 90:69–75PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Joubert CJ (1943) Mealybugs on vines. Bull Dep Agric S Afr 243:1–20Google Scholar
  79. Karamaouna F, Copland MJW (2000) Host suitability, quality and host size preference of Leptomastix epona and Pseudaphycus flavidulus, two endoparasitoids of the mealybug Pseudococcus viburni, and host size effect on parasitoid sex ratio and clutch size. Entomol Exp Appl 96:149–158Google Scholar
  80. Karamaouna F, Copland MJ (2009) Fitness and life history parameters of Leptomastix epona and Pseudaphycus flavidulus, two parasitoids of the obscure mealybug Pseudococcus viburni. BioControl 54:65–76Google Scholar
  81. Kaydan MB, Kilincer N, Kozar F (2005) Studies on Pseudococcidae (Hemiptera Coccoidea) fauna of urban ecosystem of Ankara Province, Turkey. Boll Zool Agrar Bachic 37:85–95Google Scholar
  82. Kosztarab M, Kozar F (1988) Scale insects of central Europe. Springer, NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  83. Kozár F, Guignard E, Bachmann F, Mani E, Hippe C (1994) The scale insect and whitefly of Switzerland (Homoptera: Coccoidea and Aleyrodoidea). Bull Soc Entomol Suisse 67:151–161Google Scholar
  84. Liu Y-B, Bettiga LJ, Daane KM (2010) Ultralow oxygen treatment for control of Planococcus ficus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on grape benchgrafts. J Econ Entomol 103:272–276PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Lo PL, Walker JTS (2010) Good results from a soil-applied insecticide against mealybugs. N Z Winegrower 14:125–127Google Scholar
  86. Mahfoudhi N, Dhouibi MH (2009) Survey of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) and their natural enemies in Tunisian vineyards. Afr Entomol 17:154–160Google Scholar
  87. Mani M, Krishnamoorthy A (1989) Life cycle, host stage suitability and pesticide susceptibility of the grape mealybug parasitoid, Allotropa japonica sp. n. J Biol Control 3:7–8Google Scholar
  88. Mani M, Thontadarya TS (1987a) Biological studies on the grape mealybug predator Scymnus coccivora (Ayyar). J Biol Control 1:89–92Google Scholar
  89. Mani M, Thontadarya TS (1987b) Development and feeding potential of the coccinellid, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Muls. on grape mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green). J Biol Control 1:19–22Google Scholar
  90. Mani M, Thontadarya TS (1987c) Population dynamics of the mealybug Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) and its natural enemies in the grapevine ecosystem. J Biol Control 1:93–97Google Scholar
  91. Mani M, Thontadarya TS (1988) Studies on the safety of different pesticides to the grape mealybug natural enemies, Anagyrus dactylopii (How.) and Scymnus coccivora Ayyar. Indian J Plant Prot 16:205–210Google Scholar
  92. Mani M, Thontadarya TS (1989) Field evaluation of Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Muls. in the suppression of Maconellicoccus hirsutus green on grapevine. J Biol Control 2:14–16Google Scholar
  93. Mani M, Thontadarya TS, Singh SP (1987) Record of natural enemies on the grape mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green). Curr Sci (India) 56:624–625Google Scholar
  94. Martelli GP, Agranovsky AA, Bar-Joseph M, Boscia D, Candresse T, Coutts RHA et al (2002) The family Closteroviridae revised. Arch Virol 147:2039–2044PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. McKenzie HL (1967) Mealybugs of California with taxonomy, biology and control of North American species. University of California Press, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  96. Mgocheki N, Addison P (2009a) Effect of contact pesticides on vine mealybug parasitoids, Anagyrus sp. near pseudococci (Girault) and Coccidoxenoides perminutus (Timberlake) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). S Afr J Enol Vitic 30:110–116Google Scholar
  97. Mgocheki N, Addison P (2009b) Interference of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) with biological control of the vine mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). Biol Control 49:180–185Google Scholar
  98. Mgocheki N, Addison P (2010) Spatial distribution of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), vine mealybugs and mealybug parasitoids in vineyards. J Appl Entomol 134:285–295Google Scholar
  99. Millar JG, Daane KM, McElfresh JS, Moreira JA, Malakar-Kuenen R, Guillén M et al (2002) Development and optimization of methods for using sex pheromone for monitoring the mealybug Planococcus ficus (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) in California vineyards. J Econ Entomol 95:706–714PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Millar JG, Midland SL, McElfresh JS, Daane KM (2005) (2,3,4,4-tetramethylcyclopentyl)methyl acetate, a sex pheromone from the obscure mealybug: first example of a new structural class of monoterpenes. J Chem Ecol 31:2999–3005PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Millar JG, Moreira JA, McElfresh JS, Daane KM, Freund AS (2009) Sex pheromone of the longtailed mealybug: a new class of monoterpene structure. Org Lett 11:2683–2685PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Miller DR, Gill RT, Williams DJ (1984) Taxonomic analysis of Pseudococcus affinis (Maskell), a senior synonym of Pseudococcus obscurus Essig, and a comparison with Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn) (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae). Proc Entomol Soc Wash 86:703–713Google Scholar
  103. Morandi Filho WJ, Grützmacher AD, Botton M, Bertin A (2009) Chemical control of mealybugs, Planococcus citri (Risso) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in vineyards of different ages. Arq Inst Biol 76:427–435Google Scholar
  104. Nelson EH, Daane KM (2007) Improving liquid bait programs for Argentine ant control: Bait station density. Environ Entomol 36:1475–1484PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Noyes JS, Hayat MS (1994) Oriental mealybug parasitoids of the Anagyrini (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). CAB International Press, WallingfordGoogle Scholar
  106. Petersen CL, Charles JG (1997) Transmission of grapevine leafroll-associated closteroviruses by Pseudococcus longispinus and P. calceolariae. Plant Pathol 46:509–515Google Scholar
  107. Rajagopal BK, Viraktamath CA, Gowda VN (1997) Incidence of ant associated mealybug Xeno­coccus annandalei (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) on grapes in south India. Entomon 22:165–166Google Scholar
  108. Ripa SR, Larral P (2008) Avocado and citrus pest management. Colección Libros INIA N° 23. Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias, Chile. (in Spanish)Google Scholar
  109. Ripa SR, Luppichini P (2010) Vineyard pest management. Colección Libros INIA N°26. Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias, Chile. (in Spanish)Google Scholar
  110. Ripa SR, Rojas PS (1990) Management and biological control of the white vine mealybug. Rev Frutic 11:82–87Google Scholar
  111. Roltsch WJ, Meyerdirk DE, Warkentin R, Andress ER, Carrera K (2006) Classical biological control of the pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green), in Southern California. Biol Control 37:155–166Google Scholar
  112. Rosciglione B, Castellano MA (1985) Further evidence that mealybugs can transmit grapevine virus A (GVA) to herbaceous hosts. Phytopathol Mediterr 24:186–188Google Scholar
  113. Ross L, Pen I, Shuker DM (2010a) Genomic conflict in scale insects: the causes and consequences of bizarre genetic systems. Biol Rev 85:807–828PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Ross L, Langenhof MBW, Pen I, Beukeboom LW, West SA, Shuker DM (2010b) Sex allocation in a species with paternal genome elimination: the roles of crowding and female age in the mealybug Planococcus citri. Evol Ecol Res 12:89–104Google Scholar
  115. Rotundo G, Tremblay E (1972) Studies on a sexual pheromone of Planococcus citri (Risso) (Homoptera, Coccoidea). I Boll Lab Entomol Agrar Filippo Silvestri Portici 30:217–230Google Scholar
  116. Salazar A, Gerding M, Luppichini P, Ripa R, Larraín P, Zaviezo T, Larral P (2010) Biology, management and control of mealybugs. Bol. INIA 204. Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias, Chile. (in Spanish)Google Scholar
  117. Sandanayaka WRM, Charles JG, Allan DJ (2009) Aspects of the reproductive biology of Pseudaphycus maculipennis (Hym: Encyrtidae), a parasitoid of obscure mealybug, Pseudococcus viburni (Hem: Pseudococcidae). Biol Control 48:30–35Google Scholar
  118. Satyanarayana J, Murthy MS, Srinivasa N (1991) Impact of pesticides on grapevine mealybug predator, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant. 1. Residual toxicity and safety of pesticidal sprays to predatory grubs. Indian J Entomol 53:587–592Google Scholar
  119. Sazo L, Araya JE, Cerda JDL (2008) Effect of a siliconate coadjuvant and insecticides in the control of mealybug of grapevines, Pseudococcus viburni (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). Cien Invest Agrar 35:177–184Google Scholar
  120. Sforza R, Boudon-Padieu E, Greif C (2003) New mealybug species vectoring grapevine leafroll-associated viruses-1 and-3 (GLRaV-1 and-3). Eur J Plant Pathol 109:975–981Google Scholar
  121. Sharma AM, Wang J, Duffy S, Zhang S, Wong MK, Rashed A et al (2011) Occurrence of grapevine leafroll-associated virus complex in Napa Valley. PLoS One 6(10): e26227Google Scholar
  122. Smith HS, Armitage HM (1920) Biological control of mealybugs in California. Mon Bull Calif Dep Agric 9:104–158Google Scholar
  123. Srinivas T, Prasad KS, Shekhar MA, Manjunath D (2007) Evaluation on neem based formulations vis-a-vis dichlorvos against Meconellicoccus hirsutus Uttar Pradesh. J Zool 27:13–20Google Scholar
  124. Sunitha ND, Jagginavar SB, Biradar AP (2009) Bioefficacy botanicals and newer insecticides against grape vine mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green). Karnataka J Agric Sci 22:710–711Google Scholar
  125. Tollerup KE, Rust MK, Dorschner KW, Phillips PA, Klotz JH (2004) Low-toxicity baits control ants in citrus orchards and grape vineyards. Calif Agric 58:213–217Google Scholar
  126. Tollerup K, Rust MK, Klotz JH (2007) Formica perpilosa, an emerging pest in vineyards. J Agric Urban Entomol 24:147–158Google Scholar
  127. Tsai CW, Chau J, Fernandez L, Bosco D, Daane KM, Almeida RPP (2008) Transmission of grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 by the vine mealybug (Planococcus ficus). Phytopathology 98:1093–1098PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Tsai C, Rowhani A, Golino DA, Daane KM, Almeida RPP (2010) Mealybug transmission of grapevine leafroll viruses: an analysis of virus-vector specificity. Phytopathology 100:830–834PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Wakgari WM, Giliomee JH (2005) Description of adult and immature females of six mealybug species (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) found on citrus in South Africa. Afr Entomol 13:281–332Google Scholar
  130. Walton VM, Pringle KL (2001) Effects of pesticides and fungicides used on grapevines on the mealybug predatory beetle Nephus ‘boschianus’ (Coccinellidae, Scymnini). S Afr J Enol Vitic 22:107–110Google Scholar
  131. Walton VM, Pringle KL (2004a) A survey of mealybugs and associated natural enemies in vineyards in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. S Afr J Enol Vitic 25:23–25Google Scholar
  132. Walton VM, Pringle KL (2004b) Vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), a key pest in South African vineyards. A review. S Afr J Enol Vitic 25:54–62Google Scholar
  133. Walton VM, Pringle KL (2005) Developmental biology of vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae), and its parasitoid Coccidoxenoides perminutus (Timberlake) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). Afr Entomol 13:143–147Google Scholar
  134. Walton VM, Daane KM, Pringle KL (2004) Monitoring Planococcus ficus in South African vineyards with sex pheromone-baited traps. Crop Prot 23:1089–1096Google Scholar
  135. Walton VM, Daane KM, Bentley WJ, Millar JG, Larsen TE, Malakar-Kuenen R (2006) Pheromone-based mating disruption of Planococcus ficus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in California vineyards. J Econ Entomol 99:1280–1290PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Walton VM, Kruger K, Saccaggi DL, Millar IM (2009) A survey of scale insects (Sternorryncha: Coccoidea) occurring on table grapes in South Africa. J Insect Sci 9:47Google Scholar
  137. Waterworth RA, Wright IM, Millar JG (2011) Reproductive biology of three cosmopolitan mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) species, Pseudococcus longispinus, Pseudococcus viburni, and Planococcus ficus. Ann Entomol Soc Am 104:249–260Google Scholar
  138. Williams DJ, Granara de Willink MC (1992) Mealybugs of Central and South America. CAB International, WallingfordGoogle Scholar
  139. Williams DJ, Moghaddam M (2000) Mealybug species of the genus Planococcus Ferris in Iran (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae) with a discussion of Planococcus vovae (Nasonov). J Entomol Soc Iran 18(1/2):32–43 (in Farsi)Google Scholar
  140. Zada A, Dunkelblum E, Assael F, Harel M, Cojocaru M, Mendel Z (2003) Sex pheromone of the vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus, in Israel: occurrence of a second component in a mass-reared population. J Chem Ecol 29:977–988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Zaviezo T, Cadena E, Flores MF, Bergmann J (2010) Influence of different plants substrates on development and reproduction for laboratory rearing of Pseudococcus calceolariae (Maskell) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). Cien Invest Agrar 37:31–37Google Scholar
  142. Zhang AJ, Amalin D, Shirali S, Serrano MS, Franqui RA, Oliver JE et al (2004) Sex pheromone of the pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus, contains an unusual cyclobutanoid monoterpene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:9601–9606PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Zorloni A, Prati S, Bianco PA, Belli G (2006) Transmission of grapevine virus A and grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 by Heliococcus bohemicus. J Plant Pathol 88:325–328Google Scholar
  144. Zou Y, Millar JG (2009) Synthesis of the pheromone of the longtailed mealybug, a sterically congested, irregular monoterpenoid. J Org Chem 74:7207–7209PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kent M. Daane
    • 1
  • Rodrigo P. P. Almeida
    • 1
  • Vaughn A. Bell
    • 2
  • James T. S. Walker
    • 2
  • Marcos Botton
    • 3
  • Majid Fallahzadeh
    • 4
  • M. Mani
    • 5
  • Jose Luis Miano
    • 6
  • René Sforza
    • 7
    • 8
  • Vaughn M. Walton
    • 9
  • Tania Zaviezo
    • 10
  1. 1.Department of Environmental Science, Policy and ManagementUniversity of CaliforniaBerkeleyUSA
  2. 2.New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research LimitedHavelock NorthNew Zealand
  3. 3.Embrapa Grape and WineBento GonçalvesBrazil
  4. 4.Department of Entomology, Jahrom BranchIslamic Azad UniversityJahromIran
  5. 5.Division of Entomology and NematologyIndian Institute of Horticultural ResearchBangaloreIndia
  6. 6.INTA EEA MendozaLuján de CuyoArgentina
  7. 7.USDA-ARS-European Biological Control LaboratoryMontferrier sur LezFrance
  8. 8.St-Gely du FescFrance
  9. 9.Department of HorticultureOregon State UniversityCorvallisUSA
  10. 10.Departamento de Fruticultura y EnologíaUniversidad Católica de ChileSantiagoChile

Personalised recommendations