Advertisement

Diversity of Higher Education in Europe and the Findings of a Comparative Study of the Academic Profession

  • Ulrich Teichler
Chapter

Abstract

Most analyses on the extent of “diversity” of higher education focus on the shape and the size of national higher education systems. The current dominant discourse suggests that the vertical diversity between higher education institutions is on the rise, that profiles of individual institutions might evolve and that efforts and pressures toward supranational similarity are enormous. Altogether, the virtue of substantial diversity is more often currently praised than the virtue of moderate diversity within higher education. This article raises the questions whether concepts and policies addressing the diversity of higher education systems remain more or less at the skin of higher education or whether they affect the inner life of higher education. The views and activities of the academic profession, as visible in international comparative surveys, might be a good testing ground to clarify how relevant the diversity discourse actually is for the academic life. The findings of the survey “The Changing Academic Profession” show most clearly that national differences in the academics’ views and practices continue to play a substantial role. There seem to be some norms of a certain degree of balance between teaching and research which affect the life of the majority of University Professors, but these play a lesser role for the junior staff in universities and for academics in other institutions of higher education and they leave room for diverse options on the part of the individual academics. The modes and the extent of diversity in academic life seem to be affected by the policy discourse on institutional patterns and on managerial styles to a lesser extent than might have been expected.

Keywords

High Education High Education Institution High Education System Academic Career Academic Work 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Aarrevaara, T., & Pekkola, E. (2010). Muuttuva Akateeminen Profession Suomessa – Maaraportti [The changing academic profession in Finland – National report]. Tampere: Tampere University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Altbach, P. G. (Ed.). (1996). The international academic profession: Portraits of fourteen countries. Princeton: Carnegie Foundation.Google Scholar
  3. Bentley, P., Kyvik, S., Vaboe, A., & Waagene, E. (2010). Forskningsvilkar ved norske universiteter I et internasjonalt perspektiv [Research conditions at Norwegian universities from a comparative perspective] (Rapport, 8/2010). Oslo: NIFU STEP.Google Scholar
  4. Boyer, E. L., Altbach, P. G., & Whitelaw, M. J. (1994). The academic profession: An international perspective. Princeton: Carnegie Foundation.Google Scholar
  5. CHEPS. (2008). Mapping diversity: Developing a European classification of higher education institutions. Enschede: COLOFON.Google Scholar
  6. Clark, B. R. (1996). Diversification in higher education, viability and change. In V. L. Meek, L. Goedegebuure, O. Kivinen, & R. Rinne (Eds.), The mockers and mocked (pp. 17–25). Oxford: Pergamon/IAU Press.Google Scholar
  7. Coates, H. B., Dobson, I., Edwards, D., Friedman, T., Goedegebuure, L., & Meek, L. V. (2009). The attractiveness of the Australian academic profession: A comparative analysis. Melbourne: LH Martin Institute for Higher Education Leadership and Management, Educational Policy Institute/Australian Council for Educational Research.Google Scholar
  8. Diversification of higher education and the academic profession (special issue). (2010). European Review, 18 (Supplement 1).Google Scholar
  9. Enders, J., & Teichler, U. (1995). Der Hochschullehrerberuf im internationalen Vergleich [The academic profession in international comparison]. Bonn: Bundesministerium für Bildung, Wissenschaft, Forschung und Technologie.Google Scholar
  10. Huisman, J. (1995). Differentiation, diversity and dependency in higher education: A theoretical and empirical analysis. Utrecht: Lemma.Google Scholar
  11. Huisman, J. (2009). The Bologna process towards 2020: Institutional diversification or convergence? In B. M. Kehm, J. Huisman, & B. Sensaker (Eds.), The European Higher Education Area: Perspectives on a moving target (pp. 245–262). Rotterdam/Taipei: Sense Publishers.Google Scholar
  12. Jacob, A. K., & Teichler, U. (2011). Der Wandel des Hochschullehrerberufs im internationalen Vergleich: Ergebnisse einer Befragung in den Jahren 2007/08 [Change of the academic profession in international comparison: Results of the survey of the years 2007–08]. Bonn/Berlin: Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung.Google Scholar
  13. Kehm, B. M., & Stensaker, B. (Eds.). (2009). University rankings, diversity and the landscape of higher education. Rotterdam/Taipei: Sense Publishers.Google Scholar
  14. Kogan, M. (Ed.). (2004). Management and evaluation in higher education (UNESCO Forum Occasional Paper Series, 7). Paris: UNESCO.Google Scholar
  15. Kogan, M. (2007). The academic profession and its interface with management. In M. Kogan & U. Teichler (Eds.), Key challenges to the academic profession (Werkstattberichte, Vol. 65, pp. 159–173). Kassel: International Centre for Higher Education Research Kassel.Google Scholar
  16. Kogan, M., & Teichler, U. (Eds.). (2007). Key challenges to the academic profession (Werkstattberichte, Vol. 65). Kassel: International Centre for Higher Education Research Kassel.Google Scholar
  17. Kyvik, S. (2009). The dynamics of change in higher education. Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  18. Locke, W., & Teichler, U. (Eds.). (2007). The changing conditions for academic work and careers in select countries (Werkstattberichte, Vol. 66). Kassel: International Centre for Higher Education Research Kassel.Google Scholar
  19. Locke, W., Cummings, W. K., & Fisher, D. (Eds.). (2011). Changing governance and management in higher education. Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  20. Meek, V. L., Goedegebuure, L., Kivinen, O., & Rinne, R. (1996). Conclusion. In V. L. Meek, L. Goedegebuure, O. Kivinen, & R. Rinne (Eds.), The mockers and mocked (pp. 207–236). Oxford: Pergamon/IAU Press.Google Scholar
  21. Musselin, C. (2007). Transformation of academic work: Facts and analysis. In M. Kogan & U. Teichler (Eds.), Key challenges to the academic profession (Werkstattberichte, Vol. 65, pp. 175–190). Kassel: International Centre for Higher Education Research Kassel.Google Scholar
  22. Neave, G. (1979). Academic drift: Views from Europe. Studies in Higher Education, 4(2), 143–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Neave, G. (1989). Foundation or roof? The quantitative, structural and institutional dimensions in the study of higher education. European Journal of Education, 24(3), 211–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Neave, G. (1996). Homogenization, integration and convergence: The Chesire cats of higher education. In V. L. Meek, L. Goedegebuure, O. Kivinen, & R. Rinne (Eds.), The mockers and mocked (pp. 26–41). Oxford: Pergamon/IAU Press.Google Scholar
  25. Neave, G. (2000). Diversity, differentiation and the market: The debate we never had but which we ought to have done. Higher Education Policy, 13(1), 7–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. OECD. (1991). Alternatives to universities. Paris: OECD.Google Scholar
  27. Reichert, S. (2009). Institutional diversity in European higher education: Tensions and challenges for policy makers and institutional leaders. Brussels: European University Association.Google Scholar
  28. Research Institute for Higher Education, Hiroshima University. (Ed.). (2008). The changing academic profession in international comparative and quantitative perspectives (RIHE International Seminar Reports, Vol. 12). Hiroshima: RIHE.Google Scholar
  29. Research Institute for Higher Education, Hiroshima University. (Ed.). (2009). The changing academic profession Over 1992–2007: International, comparative and quantitative perspectives (RIHE International Seminar Reports, Vol. 13). Hiroshima: RIHE.Google Scholar
  30. Research Institute for Higher Education, Hiroshima University. (Ed.). (2010). The changing academic profession in international comparative and quantitative perspectives: A focus on teaching & research activities (RIHE International Seminar Reports, Vol. 15). Hiroshima: RIHE.Google Scholar
  31. Sadlak, J., & Liu, N. C. (Eds.). (2007). The world-class university and rankings: Aiming beyond status. Bucharest/Cluj-Napoca: UNESCO-CEPES/Presa Universitara Clujeana.Google Scholar
  32. Scott, P. (1996). Unified and binary systems of higher education in Europe. In A. Burgen (Ed.), Goals and purposes of higher education in the 21st century (pp. 37–54). London/Bristol: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.Google Scholar
  33. Scott, P. (2008). Structural differentiation in higher education. In Kehm, B. M. (Ed.), Hochschule im Wandel [Changing higher education] (pp. 169–180). Frankfurt/M. and New York: Campus Verlag.Google Scholar
  34. Shin, J. C., Toutkoushian, R. K., & Teichler, U. (Eds.). (2011). University rankings: Theoretical basis, methodology and impacts on global higher education. Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  35. Teichler, U. (1988). Changing patterns of the higher education system: The experience of three decades. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.Google Scholar
  36. Teichler, U. (1996). The conditions of the academic profession: An international comparative analysis of the academic profession in Western Europe, Japan and the USA. In P.A.M. Maassen, & F. van Vught (Eds.), Inside Academia: New challenges for the academic profession (pp. 15–65). Utrecht: Uitgeverej De Tijdstrom.Google Scholar
  37. Teichler, U. (2007). Higher education systems: Conceptual frameworks, comparative perspectives, empirical findings. Rotterdam/Taipei: Sense Publishers.Google Scholar
  38. Teichler, U. (2008). Diversification? Trends and explanations of the shape and size of higher education. Higher Education, 56(3), 349–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Teichler, U. (2010a). Diversity in higher education. In P. Peterson, E. Baker, & B. McGaw (Eds.), International encyclopedia of education (Vol. 4, pp. 347–353). Oxford: Elsevier.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Teichler, U. (2010b). The diversifying academic profession? European Review, 18(1), 157–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Teichler, U. (2011a). Germany: How changing governance and management affects the views and work of the academic profession. In W. Locke, W. K. Cummings, & D. Fisher (Eds.), Changing governance and management in higher education (pp. 223–241). Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Teichler, U. (2011b). Social contexts and systemic consequences of university rankings: A meta-analysis of the ranking literature. In J. C. Shin, R. K. Toutkoushian, & U. Teichler (Eds.), University rankings (pp. 55–69). Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Trow, M. (1974). Problems in the transition from elite to mass higher education. In OECD (Ed.), Policies for higher education (pp. 51–101). Paris: OECD.Google Scholar
  44. Van Vught, F. (1996). Isomorphism in higher education. In V. L. Meek, L. Goedegebuure, O. Kivinen, & R. Rinne (Eds.), The mockers and mocked (pp. 42–58). Oxford: Pergamon/IAU Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.International Centre for Higher Education Research (INCHER-Kassel)University of KasselKasselGermany

Personalised recommendations