The Przewalski’s Horse and Its Reintroduction in the Steppe of Hustai National Park, Mongolia

  • Piet Wit
  • Namkhai Bandi
  • Inge Bouman
  • Marja A. van Staalduinen
Part of the Plant and Vegetation book series (PAVE, volume 6)


The Przewalski’s horse – Takh in Mongolian – is the last surviving genuine wild horse, and a close relative of the domestic horse. The Takh once roamed the steppes of Central Asia and Europe, but since the 1960s has gone extinct from the wild. The Reintroduction Project for the Takh was set up to bring back the species to its Mongolian homeland. A breeding programme was started to build a new population and secure its genetic basis. In Germany and the Netherlands several semi-reserves were established, where the Takh were able to adapt to live in large open territories. The best adapted second-generation Takh were chosen to be released back into the wild. The first transport of 16 Takh took place in 1992. Ultimately, 84 Takh have been re-introduced to Hustai National Park, and they adjusted well. Each year new foals added to the population and in 2009 the population had grown to 260 horses. Wolves are the main predators in Hustai National park.


Domestic Horse Mongolian Gazelle Wild Horse Feral Horse Reintroduction Project 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Berger J (1986) Wild horses of the Great Basin: social competition and population size. Wildlife and behavior and ecology. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp 283–316Google Scholar
  2. Bouman I (1998) The reintroduction of Przewalski horses in the Hustain Nuruu Mountain forest-steppe reserve in Mongolia. An integrated conservation development project. Netherlands Commission for International Nature Protection. Mededelingen 32:1–50Google Scholar
  3. Bouman I, Bouman JG (1994) The history of Przewalski’s horse. In: Boyd L, Houpt KA, Boyd L, Houpt KA (eds) Przewalski’s horse, the history and biology of an endangered species, SUNY Series in endangered species. State University of New York Press, Albany, pp 5–38Google Scholar
  4. Boyd L, Bandi N (2002) Reintroduction of Takhi, Equus ferus przewalskii, to Hustai National Park Mongolia: time budget and synchrony of activity pre- and post-release. Appl Anim Behav Sci 78:87–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Duncan PB (1992) Horses and grasses: the nutritional ecology of equids and their impact on the Camargue. Springer, Berlin, p 287Google Scholar
  6. Hovens JPM, Tungalaktua KH (2005) Seasonal fluctuations of the wolf diet in the Hustai National Park (Mongolia). Mam Biol 70:210–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Sinclair ARE, Norton-Griffiths M (eds) (1979) Serengeti: dynamics of an ecosystem. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  8. Van Staalduinen MA (2005) The impact of herbivores in a Mongolian forest-steppe. Ph.D. thesis, Utrecht University, UtrechtGoogle Scholar
  9. Wallis de Vries MF, Manibazar N, Dügerlham S (1996) The vegetation of the forest-steppe region of Hustain Nuruu, Mongolia. Vegetation 122:111–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Wit P, Bouman I (2006) The tale of the Przewalski horse. KNVV Publishing, UtrechtGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Piet Wit
    • 1
  • Namkhai Bandi
    • 2
  • Inge Bouman
    • 1
  • Marja A. van Staalduinen
    • 3
  1. 1.Foundation for the Preservation and Protection of the Przewalski HorseKlaaswaalThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Hustai National ParkUlaanbaatarMongolia
  3. 3.Ecology & BiodiversityUtrecht UniversityUtrechtThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations