Cyanobacteria in Freshwater Benthic Environments

Chapter

Summary

Cyanobacteria are widespread in freshwater benthic environments, which include wetlands, lake littoral zones, streams and rivers. This chapter outlines the major constraints on cyanobacteria in these environments. Environmental and ecological factors that determine the diversity and biomass of cyanobacteria in the freshwater benthos include physical disturbance in the form of turbulent energy and wetting/drying cycles, temperature, light, nutrients and grazing. Nutrients are particularly important, because their concentrations can control cyanobacteria within and among benthic habitats, and cyanobacteria can reciprocally influence nutrient availability via nitrogen fixation and phosphorus co-precipitation by calcareous species. Top-down control via grazing may also help to explain diverse patterns of cyanobacterial abundance, because of the interactions which occur between the cyanobacteria and their predators. Anthropogenic activities sometimes have a pronounced effect on the environmental conditions that control cyanobacterial diversity and abundance in these habitats and the resulting functional changes in the communities can result in a loss of important ecosystem services provided by these organisms.

References

  1. Abe SI, Kiso K, Katano O, Yamamoto S, Nagumo T, Tanaka J (2006) Impacts of differential consumption by the grazing fish, Plecoglossus altivelis, on the benthic algal composition in the Chikuma River, Japan. Phycol Res 54:94–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aboal M, Puig MA, Mateo P, Perona E (2002) Implications of cyanophyte toxicity on biological monitoring of calcareous streams in north-east Spain. J Appl Phycol 14:49–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderson DM, Gilbert PM, Burkholder JM (2002) Harmful algal blooms and eutrophication: nutrient sources, composition, and consequences. Estuaries 25:704–726CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Arango CP, Riley LA, Tank JL, Hall RO (2009) Herbivory by an invasive snail increases nitrogen fixation in a nitrogen-limited stream. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 66:1309–1317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Arp CD, Baker MA (2007) Discontinuities in stream nutrient uptake below lakes in mountain drainage networks. Limnol Oceanogr 52:1978–1990CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Arp CD, Gooseff MN, Baker MA, Wurtsbaugh WA (2006) Surface-water hydrodynamics and regimes of a small mountain stream-lake ecosystem. J Hydrol 329:500–513CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Arp CD, Schmidt JC, Baker MA, Myers AK (2007) Stream geomorphology in a mountain lake district: hydraulic geometry, sediment sources and sinks, and downstream lake effects. Earth Surf Proces Land 32:525–543CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Baker MA, de Guzman G, Ostermiller JD (2009) Differences in nitrate uptake among benthic algal assemblages in a mountain stream. J N Am Benthol Soc 28:24–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bebout BM, Garcia-Pichel F (1995) UV B-induced vertical migrations of cyanobacteria in a microbial mat. Appl Environ Microbiol 61:4215–4222PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Benenati PL, Shannon JP, Blinn DW (1998) Dessication and recolonization of phytobenthos in a regulated desert river: Colorodo River at Lees Ferry, Arizona, USA. Regul River 14:519–532Google Scholar
  11. Biggs BJF, Goring DG, Nikora VI (1998) Subsidy and stress responses of stream periphyton to gradients in water velocity as a function of community growth form. J Phycol 34:598–607CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Blenkinsopp SA, Lock MA (1994) The impact of storm-flow on river biofilm architecture. J Phycol 30:807–818CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bootsma HA, Hecky RE (1993) Conservation of the African Great Lakes: a limnological perspective. Conserv Biol 7:644–656CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Borchardt MA (1996) Nutrients. In: Stevenson RJ, Bothwell ML, Lowe RL (eds) Algal ecology: freshwater benthic ecosystems. Academic, San Diego, pp 183–227, 753 ppGoogle Scholar
  15. Bourassa N, Cattaneo A (2000) Responses of a lake outlet community to light and nutrient manipulation: effects on periphyton and invertebrate biomass and composition. Freshw Biol 44:629–639CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bowden WB (1987) The biogeochemistry of nitrogen in freshwater wetlands. Biogeochemistry 4:313–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bowling LC, Steane MS, Tyler PA (1986) The spectral distribution and attenuation of underwater irradiance in Tasmanian inland waters. Freshw Biol 16:313–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Brock EM (1960) Mutualism between the midge Cricotopus and the alga Nostoc. Ecology 41:474–483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Brock TD (1967) Relationship between standing crop and primary productivity along a hot spring thermal gradient. Ecology 48:566–571CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Brown PD, Wurtsbaugh WA, Nydick KR (2008) Lakes and forests as determinants of downstream nutrient concentrations in small mountain watersheds. Arct Antarct Alp Res 40:462–469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cairns J Jr (1956) Effects of increased temperatures on aquatic organisms. Ind Waste 1:150–152Google Scholar
  22. Carpenter SR, Lodge DM (1986) Effects of submersed macrophytes on ecosystem processes. Aquat Bot 26:341–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Carrick HJ, Steinman AD (2001) Variation in periphyton biomass and species composition in Lake Okeechobee, Florida (USA): distribution of algal guilds along environmental gradients. Arch Hydrobiol 152:411–438Google Scholar
  24. Castenholz RW (1969) Thermophilic blue-green algae and the thermal environment. Bacteriol Rev 33:476–504PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Castenholz RW (1973) Ecology of blue-green algae in hot springs. In: Carr NG, Whitton BA (eds) The biology of blue-green algae. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 379–414, 688 ppGoogle Scholar
  26. Choudhury ATMA, Kennedy IR (2004) Prospects and potentials for systems of biological nitrogen fixation in sustainable rice production. Biol Fertil Soil 39:219–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Colón-Gaud C, Whiles MR, Kilham SS, Lips KR, Pringle CM, Connelly S, Peterson SD (2009) Assessing ecological responses to catastrophic amphibian declines: patterns of macroinvertebrate production and food web structure in upland Panamanian streams. Limnol Oceanogr 54:331–343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Connelly S, Pringle CM, Bixby RJ, Brenes R, Whiles MR, Lips KR, Kilham S, Huryn AD (2008) Changes in stream primary producer communities resulting from large-scale catastrophic amphibian declines: can small-scale experiments predict effects of tadpole loss? Ecosystems 11:1262–1276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Corkran JL, Wickstrom CE (1987) Diel patterns of nitrogenase activity associated with macrophytes in a eutrophic lake. Aquat Bot 28:341–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Cotner JB, Kenning J, Scott JT (2009) The microbial role in littoral zone biogeochemical processes: why Wetzel was right. Verh Int Ver Limnol 30:981–984Google Scholar
  31. Davies-Colley RJ, Hickey CW, Quinn JM, Ryan PA (1992) Effects of clay discharges on streams. 1. Optical properties and epilithon. Hydrobiologia 248:215–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. De-Lamonica-Freire EM, Heckman CW (1996) The seasonal succession of biotic communities in wetlands of the tropical wet and dry climate zone: III. The algal communities in the Pantanal of Matto Grasso, Brazil, with a comprehensive list of the known species and revision of two desmid taxa. Int Rev Ges Hydrobiol 81:253–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. DeNicola DM (1996) Periphyton responses to temperature at different ecological levels. In: Stevenson RJ, Bothwell ML, Lowe RL (eds) Algal ecology: freshwater benthic ecosystems. Academic, San Diego, pp 149–181, 753 ppGoogle Scholar
  34. Dobermann A, White PF (1999) Strategies for nutrient management in irrigated and rainfed lowland rice systems. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 53:1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Dodds WK (1989) Photosynthesis of two morphologies of Nostoc parmelioides (Cyanobacteria) as related to current velocities and diffusion patterns. J Phycol 25:258–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Dodds WK (1997) Distribution of runoff and rivers related to vegetative characteristics, latitude, and slope: a global perspective. J N Am Benthol Soc 16:162–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Dodds WK, Castenholz RW (1987) Effects of grazing and light on the growth of Nostoc pruniforme (Cyanobacteria). Br Phycol J 23:219–227Google Scholar
  38. Dodds WK, Castenholz RW (1988a) The biological effects of nitrate fertilization and water replacement in an oligotrophic cold water pond. Hydrobiologia 162:141–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Dodds WK, Castenholz RW (1988b) The nitrogen budget of an oligotro­phic cold water pond. Arch Hydrobiol Suppl 79:343–362Google Scholar
  40. Dodds WK, Marra JL (1989) Behaviors of the midge, Cricotopus (Diptera: Chironomidae) related to mutualism with Nostoc par­melioides (Cyanobacteria). Aquat Insect 11:201–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Dodds WK, Gudder DA, Mollenhauer D (1995) The ecology of Nostoc. J Phycol 31:2–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Dodds WK, Biggs BJF, Lowe RL (1999) Photosynthesis-irradiance patterns in benthic microalgae: variations as a function of assemblage thickness and community structure. J Phycol 35:42–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Douglas B (1958) The ecology of the attached diatoms and other algae in a small stony stream. J Ecol 46:295–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Douterelo I, Perona E, Mateo P (2004) Use of cyanobacteria to assess water quality in running waters. Environ Pollut 127:377–384PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Downing JA, Prairie YT, Cole JJ, Duarte CM, Tranvik LJ, Striegel RG, McDowell WH, Kortelainen P, Caraco NF, Melack JM, Middelburg JJ (2006) Global abundance and size distribution of lakes, ponds, and impoundments. Limnol Oceanogr 51:2388–2397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Doyle RD, Fisher TR (1994) Nitrogen fixation by periphyton and plankton on the Amazon floodplain at Lake Calado. Biogeochemistry 26:41–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Dudley TL, D’Antonio CM (1991) The effects of substrate texture, grazing, and disturbance on macroalgal establishment in streams. Ecology 72:297–309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Duncan SW, Blinn DW (1989) Importance of physical variables on the seasonal dynamics of epilithic algae in a highly shaded canyon stream. J Phycol 25:455–461CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Durako MJ, Medlyn RA, Moffler MD (1982) Particulate matter resuspension via metabolically produced gas bubbles from benthic estuarine microalgal communities. Limnol Oceanogr 27:752–756CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Elser JJ, Bracken MES, Cleland EA, Gruner DS, Harpole WS, Hillebrand H, Ngai JT, Seabloom EW, Shurin JB, Smith JE (2007) Global analysis of nitrogen and phosphorus limitation of primary producers in freshwater, marine, and terrestrial ecosystems. Ecol Lett 10:1135–1142PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Elwood JW, Nelson DL (1972) Periphyton production and grazing rates in a stream measured with a 32P material balance method. Oikos 23:295–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Elwood JW, Newbold JD, Trimble AF, Stark RW (1981) The limiting role of phosphorus in a woodland stream ecosystem: effects of P enrichment on leaf decomposition and primary producers. Ecology 62:146–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Engle DL, Melack JM (1990) Floating meadow epiphyton: biological and chemical features of epiphytic material in an Amazon floodplain lake. Freshw Biol 22:479–494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Engle DL, Melack JM (1993) Consequences of riverine flooding for seston and the periphyton of floating meadows in an Amazon floodplain lake. Limnol Oceanogr 38:1500–1520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Enrich-Prast A, Esteves FA (1998) Diurnal variation of rates of denitrifica­tion and nitrogen fixation of periphyton associated with Oryza glumaepatula (Steud) in an Amazonian Lake. Hydrobiologia 368:189–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Fee EJ (1979) A relation between lake morphometry and primary productivity and its use in interpreting whole-lake eutrophication experiments. Limnol Oceanogr 24:401–416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Feminella JW, Hawkins CP (1995) Interactions between stream herbivores and periphyton: a quantitative analysis of past experiments. J N Am Benthol Soc 14:465–509CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Fenchel T (1998a) Formation of laminated cyanobacterial mats in the absence of benthic fauna. Aquat Microb Ecol 14:235–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Fenchel T (1998b) Artificial cyanobacterial mats: structure and composition of the biota. Aquat Microb Ecol 14:241–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Fenchel T (1998c) Artificial cyanobacterial mats: cycling of C, O, and S. Aquat Microb Ecol 14:253–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Finlay JC, Hood JM, Limm MP, Power ME, Schade JD, Welter JR (2011) Light-mediate thresholds in stream-water nutrient composition in a river network. Ecology 92:140–150Google Scholar
  62. Findlay DL, Hecky RE, Hendzel LL, Stainton MP, Regehr GW (1994) Relationship between N2 fixation and heterocyst abundance and its relevance to the nitrogen budget in Lake 227. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 51:2254–2266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Finke LR, Seeley HW (1978) Nitrogen fixation (acetylene reduction) by epiphytes of freshwater macrophytes. Appl Environ Microbiol 36:129–138PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Fisher SG (1986) Structure and dynamics of desert streams. In: Whitford WG (ed) Pattern and process in desert ecosystems. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, pp 119–139, 139 ppGoogle Scholar
  65. Fisher SG (2006) Stream ecosystems of the western United States. In: Cushing CE, Cummins KW, Minshall GW (eds) River and stream ecosystems of the world. University of California Press, Berkeley, pp 61–87, 817 ppGoogle Scholar
  66. Fisher SG, Gray LJ, Grimm DB, Busch DE (1982) Temporal succession in a desert stream ecosystem following flash flooding. Ecol Monogr 52:93–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Fisher SG, Grimm NB, Martí E, Holmes RM, Jones JB (1998) Material spiraling in stream corridors: a telescoping ecosystem model. Ecosystems 1:19–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Flecker AS (1992) Fish trophic guilds and the structure of a tropical stream: weak direct vs. strong indirect effects. Ecology 73:927–940CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Flecker AS (1996) Ecosystem engineering by a dominant detritivore in a diverse tropical stream. Ecology 77:1845–1854CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Flecker AS, Taylor BW (2004) Tropical fishes as biological bulldozers: density effects on resource heterogeneity and species diversity. Ecology 85:2267–2278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Flecker AS, Feifarek BP, Taylor BW (1999) Ecosystem engineering by a tropical tadpole: density-dependent effects on habitat structure and larval growth rates. Copeia 1999:495–500CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Flecker AS, Taylor BW, Bernhardt ES, Hood JM, Cornwell WK, Cassatt SR, Vanni MJ, Altman NS (2002) Interactions between herbivorous fishes and limiting nutrients in a tropical stream ecosystem. Ecology 83:1831–1844Google Scholar
  73. Fleming-Singer MS, Horne AJ (2006) Balancing wildlife needs and nitrate removal in constructed wetlands: the case of the Irvin Ranch Water District’s San Joaquin Wildlife Sanctuary. Ecol Eng 26:147–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Francoeur SN, Biggs BJF (2006) Short-term effects of elevated velocity and sediment abrasion on benthic algal communities. Hydrobiologia 561:59–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Gaiser EE, Scinto LJ, Richards JH, Jayachandran K, Childers DL, Trexler JC, Jones RD (2004) Phosphorus in periphyton mats provides the best metric for detecting low-level P enrichment in an oligotrophic wetland. Water Res 38:507–516PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Gaiser EE, Childers DL, Jones RD, Richards JH, Scinto LJ, Trexler JC (2006) Periphyton response to eutrophication in the Florida Everglades: cross-systems patterns of structural and compositional change. Limnol Oceanogr 51:617–630CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Gelwick FP, Matthews WJ (1992) Effects of an algivorous minnow on temperate stream ecosystem properties. Ecology 73:1630–1645CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Gettel GM, Giblin AE, Howarth RM (2007) The effects of grazing by the snail, Limnaea elodes, on benthic N2 fixation and primary production in oligotrophic, arctic lakes. Limnol Oceanogr 52:2398–2409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Ghosh TK, Saha KC (1993) Effects of inoculation with N2-fixing cyanobacteria on the nitrogenase activity of soil and rhizosphere of wetland rice. Biol Fertil Soil 16:16–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Gleason PJ, Spackman W (1974) Calcareous periphyton and water chemistry in the Everglades. In: Gleason PJ (ed) Environments of South Florida: present and past. Miami Geological Society, Miami, pp 146–181Google Scholar
  81. Gottlieb A, Richards J, Gaiser E (2005) Effects of desiccation duration on the community structure and nutrient retention of short and long-hydroperiod Everglades periphyton mats. Aquat Bot 82:99–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Gottlieb A, Richards JH, Gaiser EE (2006) Comparative study of periphyton community structure in long and short-hydroperiod Everglades marshes. Hydrobiologia 569:195–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Grimm NB (1994) Disturbance, succession and ecosystem processes in streams: a case study from the desert. In: Giller PS, Hildrew AG, Rafaelli DG (eds) Aquatic ecology: scale, pattern and process. Blackwell Scientific, Oxford, pp 93–112, 649 ppGoogle Scholar
  84. Grimm NB, Fisher SC (1986) Nitrogen limitation in a Sonoran Desert stream. J N Am Benthol Soc 5:2–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Grimm NB, Fisher SC (1989) Stability of periphyton and macroinvertebrates to disturbance by flash floods in a desert stream. J N Am Benthol Soc 8:293–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Grimm NB, Fisher SC (1992) Responses of arid-land streams to changing climate. In: Firth P, Fisher SG (eds) Global climate change and freshwater ecosystems. Springer, New York, pp 211–233, 321 ppCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Grimm NB, Petrone KC (1997) Nitrogen fixation in a desert stream ecosystem. Biogeochemistry 37:33–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Grimshaw HJ, Rosen M, Swift DR, Rodberg K, Noel JM (1993) Marsh phosphorus concentrations, phosphorus content and species composition of Everglades periphyton communities. Arch Hydrobiol 128:257–276Google Scholar
  89. Hagerthey SE, Kerfoot WC (1998) Groundwater flow influences the biomass and nutrient ratios of epibenthic algae in a north temperate seepage lake. Limnol Oceanogr 43:1227–1242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Hagerthey SE, Kerfoot WC (2005) Spatial variation in groundwater-related resource supply influences freshwater benthic algal assemblage composition. J N Am Benthol Soc 24:807–819CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Hagerthey SE, Newman S, Rutchey K, Smith EP, Godin J (2008) Multiple regime shifts in a subtropical peatland: community-specific thresholds to eutrophication. Ecol Monogr 78:547–565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Hansson LA (1988) Effects of competitive interactions on the biomass development of planktonic and periphytic algae in lakes. Limnol Oceanogr 33:121–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Hashem MA (2001) Problems and prospects of cyanobacterial biofertilizer for rice cultivation. Aust J Plant Physiol 28:881–888Google Scholar
  94. Havens KE, East TL, Meeker RH, Davis WP, Steinman AB (1996) Phytoplakton and periphyton responses to in-situ experimental nutrient enrichment in a shallow subtropical lake. J Plankton Res 18:551–566CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Havens KE, East TL, Rodusky AJ, Sharfstein B (1999a) Littoral peri­phyton responses to nitrogen and phosphorus: and experimental study in a subtropical lake. Aquat Bot 63:267–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Havens KE, East TL, Hwang SJ, Rodusky AJ, Sharfstein B, Steinman AB (1999b) Algal responses to experimental nutrient addition in the littoral community of a subtropical lake. Freshw Biol 42:329–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Henry JC, Fisher SG (2003) Spatial segregation of periphyton communities in a desert stream: causes and consequences for N cycling. J N Am Benthol Soc 22:511–527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Hickman M (1974) Effects of the discharge of thermal effluent from a power station on Lake Wabamun, Alberta, Canada – the epipelic and episamic algal communities. Hydrobologia 45:199–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Hieber M, Robinson CT, Rushforth SR, Uehlinger U (2001) Algal communities associated with different alpine stream types. Arct Antarct Alp Res 33:447–456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Hieber M, Robinson CT, Uehlinger U, Ward JV (2002) Are Alpine lake outlets less harsh than other alpine streams. Arch Hydrobiol 154:199–223Google Scholar
  101. Higgins SN, Hecky RE, Taylor WD (2001) Epilithic nitrogen fixation in the rocky littoral zones of Lake Malawi, Africa. Limnol Oceanogr 46:976–982CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Higgins SN, Kling HJ, Hecky RE, Taylor WD, Bootsma HA (2003) The community composition, distribution, and nutrient status of epilithic periphyton at five rocky littoral zones sites in Lake Malawi, Africa. J Gt Lakes Res 29:181–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Hildebrand SF, Towers IL (1927) Food of trout in Fish Lake, Utah. Ecology 8:389–397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Hill WR, Boston HL (1991) Community development alters photosynthesis-irradiance relations in stream periphyton. Limnol Oceanogr 36:1375–1389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Hill WR, Knight AW (1987) Experimental analysis of the grazing interaction between and mayfly and stream algae. Ecology 68:1955–1965CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Hill WR, Ryon MG, Schilling EM (1995) Light limitation in a stream ecosystem: responses by primary producers and consumers. Ecology 76:1297–1309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Hill WR, Mulholland PJ, Marzolf ER (2001) Stream ecosystem responses to forest leaf emergence in spring. Ecology 82:2306–2319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Holomuzki JR, Biggs BJF (2006) Food limitation affects algivory and grazer performance for New Zealand stream macroinvertebrates. Hydrobiologia 561:83–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Horne AJ (1975) Algal nitrogen fixation in California streams: diel cycles and nocturnal fixation. Freshw Biol 5:471–477CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Horne AJ, Carmiggelt CJW (1975) Algal nitrogen fixation in Californian streams: seasonal cycles. Freshw Biol 5:461–470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Howarth RW, Marino R, Lane J, Cole JJ (1988) Nitrogen fixation in freshwater, estuarine, and marine ecosystems. 1. Rates and importance. Limnol Oceanogr 33:669–687CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Inglett PW, Reddy KR, McCormick PV (2004) Periphyton chemistry and nitrogenase activity in a northern Everglades ecosystem. Biogeochemistry 67:213–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Inglett PW, D’Angelo EM, Reddy KR, McCormick PV, Hagerthy SE (2009) Periphyton nitrogenase activity as an indicator of wetland eutrophication: spatial patterns and responses to phosphorus dosing in a northern Everglades ecosystem. Wetl Ecol Manage 17:131–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Irisarri P, Gonnet S, Monza J (2001) Cyanobacteria in Uruguayan rice fields: diversity, nitrogen fixing ability, and tolerance to herbicide and combined nitrogen. J Biotechnol 91:95–103PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Irisarri P, Gonnet S, Deambrosi E, Monza J (2007) Cyanobacterial inoculation and nitrogen fertilization in rice. World J Microbiol Technol 23:237–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Jasrotia P, Ogram A (2008) Diversity of nifH genotypes in floating periphyton mats along a nutrient gradient in the Florida Everglades. Curr Microbiol 56:563–568PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Jones JB, Fisher SG, Grimm NB (1995) Nitrification in the hyporheic zone of a desert stream ecosystem. J N Am Benthol Soc 14:249–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Jørgensen BB, Cohen Y, Des Marais DJ (1987) Photosynthetic action spectra and adaptation to spectral light distribution in a benthic cyanobacterial mat. Appl Environ Microbiol 53:879–886PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Kadlec RH, Wallace SD (2009) Treatment wetlands, 2nd edn. CRC Press, Boca Raton, 1025 ppGoogle Scholar
  120. Kannaiyan S, Aruna SJ, Kumari S, Hall DO (1997) Immobilized cyano­bacteria as a biofertilizer for rice crops. J Appl Phycol 9:167–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Kehde PM, Wilhm JL (1972) The effects of grazing by snails on community structure of periphyton in laboratory streams. Am Midl Nat 87:8–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Kennedy IR, Islam N (2001) The current and potential contribution of asymbiotic nitrogen fixation to nitrogen requirements on farms: a review. Aust J Exp Agric 41:447–457CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Kern J, Darwich A (2003) The role of periphytic N2 fixation for stands of macrophytes in the whitewater floodplain (varzea). Amazoniana 17:361–375Google Scholar
  124. Komárek J, Komárková-Legnerová J (2007) Taxonomic evaluation of the cyanobacterial microflora from alkaline marshes of Northern Belize. 1. Phenotypic diversity of coccoid morphotypes. Nova Hedwig 84:65–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Kratz TK, Webster KE, Bowser CJ, Macnuson JJ, Benson BJ (1997) The influence of landscape position on lakes in northern Wisconsin. Freshw Biol 37:209–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Kullberg RG (1971) Algal distribution in six thermal spring effluents. Trans Am Microsc Soc 90:412–434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Kundu DK, Ladha JK (1995) Enhancing soil nitrogen use and biological nitrogen fixation in wetland rice. Exp Agric 31:261–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Ladha JK, Reddy PM (2003) Nitrogen fixation in rice systems: state of knowledge and future prospects. Plant Soil 19:151–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Lamberti GA, Resh VH (1985) Distribution of benthic algae and macroinvertebrates along a thermal stream gradient. Hydrobiologia 128:13–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Lehner B, Döll P (2004) Development and validation of a global database of lakes, reservoirs and wetlands. J Hydrol 296:1–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Levine SN, Schindler DW (1999) Influence of nitrogen to phosphorus supply ratios and physicochemical conditions on cyanobacteria and phytoplankton species composition in the Experimental Lakes Area, Canada. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 56:451–466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Liston SE, Trexler JC (2005) Spatiotemporal patterns in community structure of macroinvertebrates inhabiting calcareous periphyton mats. J N Am Benthol Soc 24:832–844CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Livingstone D, Pentecost A, Whitton BA (1984) Diel variations in nitrogen and carbon dioxide fixation by the blue-green alga Rivularia in an upland stream. Phycologia 23:125–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Loeb SL, Reuter JE (1981) The epilithic periphyton community: a five-lake comparative study of community productivity, nitrogen metabolism and depth-distribution of standing crop. Verh Int Ver Limnol 21:346–352Google Scholar
  135. Luttenton MR, Rada RG (1986) Effects of disturbance on epiphytic community architecture. J Phycol 22:320–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Malmqvist B, Rundle S (2002) Threats to the running water ecosystems of the world. Environ Conserv 29:134–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Mandal B, Vlek BLG, Mandal LN (1999) Beneficial effects of blue-green algae and Azolla, excluding supplying nitrogen, on wetland rice fields: a review. Biol Fertil Soil 28:329–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Marcarelli AM, Wurtsbaugh WA (2006) Temperature and nutrient supply interact to control nitrogen fixation in oligotrophic streams: an experimental examination. Limnol Oceanogr 51:2278–2289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Marcarelli AM, Wurtsbaugh WA (2007) Effects of upstream lakes on nutrient limitation on periphytic biomass and nitrogen fixation in oligotrophic, subalpine streams. Freshw Biol 52:2211–2225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Marcarelli AM, Wurtsbaugh WA (2009) Nitrogen fixation varies spatially and seasonally in linked stream-lake ecosystems. Biogeochemistry 94:95–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Marcarelli AM, Baker MA, Wurtsbaugh WA (2008) Is in-stream N2 fixation an important N source for benthic communities and stream ecosystems? J N Am Benthol Soc 27:186–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Mayer PM, Galatowitsch SM (2001) Assessing integrity of restored prairie wetlands from species production-diversity relationships. Hydrobiologia 443:177–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. McCormick PV, O’Dell MB (1996) Quantifying periphyton responses to phosphorus in the Florida Everglades: a synoptic experimental approach. J N Am Benthol Soc 15:450–468CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. McCormick PV, Rawlick PS, Lurding K, Smith EP, Sklar FH (1996) Periphtyon-water quality relationships along a nutrient-gradient in the northern Florida Everglades. J N Am Benthol Soc 15:433–449CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. McCormick PV, Shuford RBE, Backus JG, Kennedy WC (1998) Spatial and seasonal patterns of periphyton biomass and productivity in the northern Everglades, Florida, USA. Hydrobiologia 362:185–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. McCormick PV, O’Dell MB, Shuford RBE, Backus JG, Kennedy WC (2001) Periphyton responses to experimental phosphorus enrichment in a subtropical wetland. Aquat Bot 71:119–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. McCormick PV, Newman S, Vilchek LW (2009) Landscape responses to wetland eutrophication: loss of slough habitat in the Florida Everglades, USA. Hydrobiologia 621:105–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. McDougal RL, Goldsborough LG, Hann BJ (1997) Responses of a prairie wetland to press and pulse additions of inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus: production by planktonic and benthic algae. Arch Hydrobiol 140:145–167Google Scholar
  149. McIntire CD (1966) Some effects of current velocity on periphyton communities in laboratory streams. Hydrobiologia 27:559–570CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. McIntyre PB, Michel E, Olsgard M (2006) Top-down and bottom-up controls on periphyton biomass and productivity in Lake Tanganyika. Limnol Oceanogr 51:1514–1523CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Mitsch WJ, Gosselink JG (2000) Wetlands, 3rd edn. Wiley, New York, 920 ppGoogle Scholar
  152. Moeller RE, Roskoski JP (1978) Nitrogen-fixation in the littoral benthos of an oligotrophic lake. Hydrobiologia 60:13–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Mosser JL, Brock TD (1976) Temperature optima for algae inhabiting cold mountain stream. Arct Antarct Alp Res 8:111–114Google Scholar
  154. Mulholland PJ (1992) Regulation of nutrient concentrations in a temperate forest stream: roles of upland, riparian, and instream processes. Limnol Oceanogr 37:1512–1526CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Mulholland PJ (2004) The importance of in-stream uptake for regulating stream concentrations and outputs of N and P from a forested watershed: evidence from long-term chemistry records for Walker Branch Watershed. Biogeochemistry 70:403–426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Mulholland PJ, Rosemond AD (1992) Periphyton response to longi­tudinal nutrient depletion in a woodland stream: evidence of upstream-downstream linkage. J N Am Benthol Soc 11:405–419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Mulholland MR, Bronk DA, Capone DG (2004) Dinitrogen fixation and release of ammonium and dissolved organic nitrogen by Trichodesmium IMS101. Aquat Microb Ecol 37:85–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Mulholland MR, Bernhardt PW, Heil CA, Bronk DA, O’Neil JM (2006) Nitrogen fixation and the release of fixed nitrogen by Trichodesmium spp. in the Gulf of Mexico. Limnol Oceanogr 51:1762–1776CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Myers AK, Marcarelli AM, Arp CD, Baker MA, Wurtsbaugh WA (2007) Disruptions of stream sediment size and stability by lakes in mountain watersheds: potential effects on periphyton biomass. J N Am Benthol Soc 26:390–400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Neumann AC, Gebelein CD, Scoffin TP (1970) The composition, structure and erodability of subtidal mats, Abaco, Bahamas. J Sediment Petrol 40:274–297Google Scholar
  161. Newman S, McCormick PV, Backus JG (2003) Phosphatase activity as an early warning indicator of wetland eutrophication: problems and prospects. J Appl Phycol 15:45–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Nolen SL, Wilhm J, Howick G (1985) Factors influencing inorganic turbidity in a Great Plains reservoir. Hydrobiologia 123:109–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Norman RJ, Wilson CE, Slaton NA (2003) Soil fertilization and rice nutrition in US mechanized rice culture. In: Smith CW, Dilday RH (eds) Rice: origin, history, technology, and production. Wiley Sciences, Hoboken, pp 331–411Google Scholar
  164. O’Reilly C (2006) Seasonal dynamics of periphyton in a large tropical lake. Hydrobiologia 553:293–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Patrick R (1974) Effects of abnormal temperatures on algal communities. In: Gibbons JW, Sharitz RR (eds) Thermal ecology: proceedings of a symposium held at Augusta, Georgia, 3–5 May 1973. US Atomic Energy Commission, Oak Ridge, pp 335–349, 670 ppGoogle Scholar
  166. Patrick R, Crum B, Coles J (1969) Temperature and manganese as determining factors in the presence of diatom or blue-green algal floras in streams. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 64:472–478PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Perona E, Bonilla I, Mateo P (1998) Epilithic cyanobacteria communities and water quality: an alternative tool for monitoring eutrophication in the Alberche River (Spain). J Appl Phycol 10:183–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Peterson CG (1996) Responses of benthic algal communities to natural physical disturbance. In: Stevenson RJ, Bothwell ML, Lowe RL (eds) Algal ecology: freshwater benthic ecosystems. Academic, San Diego, pp 375–402, 753 ppGoogle Scholar
  169. Peterson CG, Grimm NB (1992) Temporal variation in enrichment effects during periphyton succession in a nitrogen-limited desert stream ecosystem. J N Am Benthol Soc 11:20–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Peterson CG, Hoagland KD, Stevenson RJ (1990) Timing of wave disturbance and the resistance and recovery of a freshwater epilithic microalgal community. J N Am Benthol Soc 9:54–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Peterson CG, Weibel AC, Grimm NB, Fisher SG (1994) Mechanisms of benthic algal recovery following spates: comparison of simulated and natural events. Oecologia 98:280–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Poff NL, Voelz NJ, Ward JV, Lee RE (1990) Algal colonization under four experimentally-controlled current regimes in a high mountain stream. J N Am Benthol Soc 9:303–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Power ME (1984) The importance of sediment in the grazing ecology and size class interactions of an armored catfish, Ancistrus spinosus. Environ Biol Fish 10:173–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Power ME (1990) Resource enhancement by indirect effects of grazers: armored catfish, algae, and sediment. Ecology 71:897–904CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Power ME, Stewart AJ, Matthews WJ (1988) Grazer control of algae in an Ozark mountain stream: effects of short-term exclusion. Ecology 69:1894–1898CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Power M, Lowe R, Furey P, Welter J, Limm M, Finlay J, Bode C, Chang S, Goodrich M, Sculley J (2009) Algal mats and insect emergence in rivers under Mediterranean climates: toward photogrammetric surveillance. Freshw Biol 54:2101–2115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Pringle C (1996) Atyid shrimps (Decapoda: Atyidae) influence the spatial heterogeneity of algal communities over different scales in tropical montane streams, Puerto Rico. Freshw Biol 35:125–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Pringle CM, Hamazaki T (1997) Effects of fishes on algal response to storms in a tropical stream. Ecology 78:2432–2442Google Scholar
  179. Pringle CM, Hamazaki T (1998) The role of omnivory in a neotropical stream: separating diurnal and nocturnal effects. Ecology 79:269–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Putz R (1997) Periphyton communities in Amazonian black- and whitewater habitats: community structure, biomass, and productivity. Aquat Sci 59:74–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Ranvestel AW, Lips KR, Pringle CM, Whiles MR, Bixby RJ (2004) Neotropical tadpoles influence stream benthos: evidence for the ecological consequences of decline in amphibian populations. Freshw Biol 49:274–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Reddy KR, DeLaune RD (2008) Biogeochemistry of wetlands: science and applications. CRC Press, Boca Raton, 774 ppCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Rejmánková E (2001) Effect of experimental phosphorus enrichment on oligotrophic tropical marshes in Belize, Central America. Plant Soil 236:33–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Rejmánková E, Komárková J (2000) A function of cyanobacterial mats in phosphorus-limited tropical wetlands. Hydrobiologia 431:135–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Rejmánková E, Komárková J (2005) Response of cyanobacterial mats to nutrient and salinity changes. Aquat Bot 83:87–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Rejmánková E, Pope KO, Post R, Maltby E (1996) Herbaceous wetlands of the Yucatan Peninsula: communities at extreme ends of environmental gradients. Int Rev Ges Hydrobiol 81:223–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Rejmánková E, Komárek J, Komárková J (2004a) Cyanobacteria – a neglected component of biodiversity: patterns of species diversity of inland marshes of northern Belize (Central America). Divers Distrib 10:189–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Rejmánková E, Komárková J, Rejmánek M (2004b) δ15N as an indicator of N2-fixation by cyanobacterial mats in tropical marshes. Biogeochemistry 67:353–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Reuter JE, Axler RP (1992) Physiological characteristics of inorganic nitrogen uptake by spatially separate algal communities in a nitrogen-deficient lake. Freshw Biol 27:227–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Reuter JE, Loeb SL, Goldman CR (1983) Nitrogen fixation in periphyton of oligotrophic Lake Tahoe. In: Wetzel RG (ed) Periphyton of freshwater ecosystems. Dr W. Junk Publishers, The Hague, pp 101–109, 359 ppCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Reuter JE, Loeb SL, Axler RP, Carlton RG, Goldman CR (1985) Transformations of nitrogen following an epilimnetic nitrogen fertilization in Castle Lake, CA: 1. Epilithic periphyton responses. Arch Hydrobiol 102:425–433Google Scholar
  192. Reuter JE, Loeb SL, Goldman CR (1986) Inorganic nitrogen uptake by epilithic periphyton in a N-deficient lake. Limnol Oceanogr 31:149–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Riber HH, Wetzel RG (1987) Boundary-layer and internal diffusion effects on phosphorus fluxes in lake periphyton. Limnol Oceanogr 32:1181–1194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Robarts RD, Zohary T (1984) Microcystic aeruginosa and underwater light attenuation in a hypereutrophic lake (Hartbeespoort Dam, South Africa). J Ecol 72:1001–1017CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Roberts BJ, Mulholland PJ, Hill WR (2007) Multiple scales of temporal variability in ecosystem metabolism rates: results from 2 years of continuous monitoring in a forested headwater stream. Ecosystems 10:588–606CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Robson BJ (2000) Role of residual biofilm in the recolonization of rocky intermittent streams by benthic algae. Mar Freshw Res 51:725–732CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Robson BJ, Matthews TG, Lind PR, Thomas NA (2008) Pathways for algal recolonization in seasonally-flowing streams. Freshw Biol 53:2385–2401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Rodusky AJ, Steinman AD, East TL, Sharfstein B, Meeker RH (2001) Periphyton nutrient limitation and other growth-controlling factors in Lake Okeechobee, USA. Hydrobiologia 448:27–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Roger PA (1995) Biological N2-fixation and its management in wetland rice cultivation. Fertil Res 42:261–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Roger PA, Ladha JK (1992) Biological N2 fixation in wetland rice fields: estimation and contribution to nitrogen balance. Plant Soil 141:41–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Romani AM, Sabater S (1997) Metabolism recovery of a stromatolitic biofilm after drought in a Mediterranean stream. Arch Hydrobiol 140:261–271Google Scholar
  202. Rosemond AD (1993) Interactions among irradiance, nutrients, and herbi­vores constrain a stream algal community. Oecologia 94:585–594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Rosemond AD (1994) Multiple factors limit seasonal variation in periphyton in a forest stream. J N Am Benthol Soc 13:333–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Rosemond AD, Mulholland PJ, Elwood JW (1993) Top-down and bottom-up control of stream periphyton: effects of nutrients and herbivores. Ecology 74:1264–1280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Rosemond AD, Mulholland PJ, Brawley SH (2000) Seasonally shifting limitation of stream periphyton: response of algal populations and assemblage biomass and productivity to variation in light, nutrients and herbivores. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 57:66–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Rott E, Cantonati M, Fureder L, Pfister P (2006) Benthic algae in high altitude streams of the Alps – a neglected component of the aquatic biota. Hydrobiologia 562:195–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Schindler DW, Hesslein RH, Turner MA (1987) Exchange of nutrients between sediments and water after 15 years of experimental eutrophication. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 44:26–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Scott JT, Doyle RD, Filstrup CT (2005) Periphyton nutrient limitation and nitrogen fixation potential along a wetland nutrient-depleation gradient. Wetlands 25:439–448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Scott JT, Doyle RD, Back JA, Dworkin SI (2007) The role of N2 fixation in alleviating N limitation in wetland metaphyton: enzymatic, isotopic, and elemental evidence. Biogeochemistry 84:207–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Scott JT, McCarthy MJ, Gardner WS, Doyle RD (2008) Denitrification, dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium, and nitrogen fixation along a nitrate concentration gradient in a created freshwater wetland. Biogeochemistry 87:99–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Scott JT, McCarthy MJ (2010) Nitrogen fixation may not balance the nitrogen pool of lakes over timescales relevant to eutrophication management. Limnology and Oceanography 55:1265–1270Google Scholar
  212. Sheath RG, Cole KM (1992) Biogeography of stream macroalgae in North America. J Phycol 28:448–460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Simpson IC, Roger PA, Oficial R, Grant IF (1994) Effects of nitrogen fertilizer and pesticide management on floodwater ecology in a wetland ricefield. I. Experimental design and dynamics of photosynthetic aquatic biomass. Biol Fertil Soil 17:129–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Sirova D, Vrba J, Rejmánková E (2006) Extracellular enzyme activities in benthic cyanobacterial mats: comparison between nutrient-enriched and control sites in marshes of northern Belize. Aquat Microb Ecol 44:11–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. Sivonen K (1996) Cyanobacterial toxins and toxin production. Phycologia 35(6 Suppl):12–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Sperling JA, Hale GM (1973) Patterns of radiocarbon uptake by thermophilic blue-green alga under varying conditions of incubation. Limnol Oceanogr 18:658–666CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Steinman AD (1992) Does an increase in irradiance influence periphyton in a heavily-grazed woodland stream? Oecologia 91:163–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Steinman AD (1996) Effects of grazers on freshwater benthic algae. In: Stevenson RJ, Bothwell ML, Lowe RL (eds) Algal ecology: freshwater benthic ecosystems. Academic, San Diego, pp 341–373, 753 ppGoogle Scholar
  219. Stevenson RJ (1996a) An introduction to algal ecology in freshwater benthic habitats. In: Stevenson RJ, Bothwell ML, Lowe RL (eds) Algal ecology: freshwater benthic ecosystems. Academic, San Diego, pp 3–30, 753 ppGoogle Scholar
  220. Stevenson RJ (1996b) The stimulation and drag of current. In: Stevenson RJ, Bothwell ML, Lowe RL (eds) Algal ecology: freshwater benthic ecosystems. Academic, San Diego, pp 321–340, 753 ppGoogle Scholar
  221. Stevenson RJ, Stoermer EF (1981) Quantitative differences between benthic algal communities along a depth gradient in Lake Michigan. J Phycol 17:29–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Stewart WDP (1970) Nitrogen fixation by blue-green algae in Yellowstone thermal areas. Phycologia 9:261–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. Tang EPY, Tremblay R, Vincent WF (1997) Cyanobacterial dominance of polar freshwater ecosystems: are high-latitude mat-formers adapted to low temperature? J Phycol 33:171–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. Taylor BW, Flecker AS, Hall RO (2006) Loss of a harvested fish species disrupts carbon flow in a diverse tropical river. Science 313:833–836PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. Tilman D, Kiesling RL (1984) Freshwater algal ecology: taxonomic trade-offs in the temperature dependence of nutrient competitive abilities. In: Klug MJ, Reddy CA (eds) Current perspectives in microbial ecology. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC, pp 314–319, 710 ppGoogle Scholar
  226. Turicchia S, Ventura S, Komárková J, Komárek J (2009) Taxonomic evaluation of cyanobacterial microflora in alkaline marshes of northern Belize: diversity of oscillatorialean genera. Nova Hedwig 89:165–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. Uehlinger U (1991) Spatial and temporal variability of periphyton biomass in a pre-alpine river (Necker, Switzerland). Arch Hydrobiol 123:219–237Google Scholar
  228. Vadeboncoeur Y, Lodge DM, Carpenter SR (2001) Whole-lake fertilization effects on distribution of primary production between benthic and pelagic habitats. Ecology 82:1065–1077CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. Vadeboncoeur Y, Vander Zanden MJ, Lodge DM (2002) Putting the lake back together: reintegrating benthic pathways into lake food web models. Bioscience 52:44–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. Vadeboncoeur Y, Kalff J, Christoffersen K, Jeppesen E (2006) Substratum as a driver of variation in periphyton chlorophyll and productivity in lakes. J N Am Benthol Soc 25:379–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. Vadeboncoeur Y, Peterson G, Vander Zanden MJ, Kalff J (2008) Benthic algal production across lake size gradients: interactions among morphometry, nutrients and light. Ecology 89:2542–2552PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. Valett HM, Fisher SG, Brimm NB, Camill P (1994) Vertical hydrologic exchange and ecological stability of a desert stream ecosystem. Ecology 75:548–560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. Van Meter NN (1965) Some quantitative and qualitative aspects of periphyton in the Everglades. MS thesis, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL, USA, 98 ppGoogle Scholar
  234. Vanni MJ (2002) Nutrient cycling by animals in freshwater ecosystem. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 33:341–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. Vincent WF (2004) Microbial ecosystems of Antarctica. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 304 ppGoogle Scholar
  236. Vincent WF, Howard-Williams C (1986) Antarctic stream ecosystems: physiological ecology of a blue-green algal epilithon. Freshw Biol 16:219–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. Vis S, Cattaneo A, Hudon C (2008) Shift from chlorophytes to cyano­bacteria in benthic macroalgae along a gradient of nitrate depletion. J Phycol 44:38–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. Vymazal J, Richardson CJ (1995) Species composition, biomass, and nutrient content of periphyton in the Florida Everglades. J Phycol 31:343–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. Ward AK (1985) Factors affecting distribution of Nostoc in Cascade Mountain streams of Western Oregon, U.S.A. Verh Int Ver Limnol 22:2799–2804Google Scholar
  240. Ward DM, Castenholz RW (2000) Cyanobacteria in geothermal habitats. In: Whitton BA, Potts M (eds) The ecology of cyanobacteria: their diversity in time and space. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 37–59, 669 ppGoogle Scholar
  241. Ward AK, Wetzel RG (1980) Interactions of light and nitrogen source on planktonic blue-green algae. Arch Hydrobiol 90:1–25Google Scholar
  242. Ward AK, Dahm CA, Cummins KW (1985) Nostoc (Cyanophyta) productivity in Oregon stream ecosystems: invertebrate influences and differences between morphological types. J Phycol 21:223–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. Wellnitz TA, Ward JV (2000) Herbivory and irradiance shape periphytic architecture in a Swiss alpine stream. Limnol Oceanogr 45:64–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. Whiles MR, Lips KR, Pringle CM, Kilham SS, Bixby RJ, Brenes R, Connelly S, Colón-Gaud JC, Hunte-Brown M, Huryn AD, Montgomery C, Peterson S (2006) The effects of amphibian population declines on the structure and function of neotropical stream ecosystems. Front Ecol Environ 4:27–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. Whitton BA (2000) Soils and rice fields. In: Whitton BA, Potts M (eds) The ecology of cyanobacteria: their diversity in time and space. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp 233–249, 669 ppGoogle Scholar
  246. Whitton BA, Gale NL, Wixson BG (1981) Chemistry and plant ecology of zinc-rich wastes dominated by blue-green algae. Hydrobiologia 83:331–341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. Wickstrom CE, Corkran JL (1997) Nitrogenase activities associated with macrophytes from a lacustrine and a freshwater estuarine habitat. Aquat Bot 59:157–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. Wilde EW, Tilly LJ (1981) Structural characteristics of algal communities in thermally altered artificial streams. Hydrobiologia 76:57–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. Wood EJG, Maynard NG (1974) Ecology of microalgae of the Florida Everglades. In: Gleason PJ (ed) Environments of South Florida: present and past. Miami Geological Society, Miami, pp 123–145Google Scholar
  250. Wu X, Mitsch WJ (1998) Spatial and temporal patterns of algae in newly constructed freshwater wetlands. Wetlands 18:9–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. Wynn-Williams DD (2000) Cyanobacteria in deserts – life at the limit. In: Whitton BA, Potts M (eds) The ecology of cyanobacteria: their diversity in time and space. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 341–361, 669 ppGoogle Scholar
  252. Yang GY, Tang T, Dudgeon D (2009) Spatial and seasonal variations in benthic algal assemblages in streams in monsoonal Hong Kong. Hydrobiologia 632:189–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Crop, Soil and Environmental Sciences, Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life SciencesUniversity of ArkansasFayettevilleUSA
  2. 2.Department of Biological SciencesMichigan Technological UniversityHoughtonUSA

Personalised recommendations