Cyanobacteria, Oil – and Cyanofuel?

Chapter

Summary

Global warming, the global carbon cycle, and current and future global trading in carbon credits (the carbon market), are beginning to dictate radical changes in human behaviour. In this context, the cyanobacteria figure prominently. Why? First, vast populations of ancient cyanobacteria and other microalgae are credited with the formation of Earth’s oil deposits. Second, extant populations of cyanobacteria, most conspicuously marine picoplankton (Chaps. 5 and 13) contribute significantly to the fixation of atmospheric carbon through their photosynthesis. Third, spills from the commercial trafficking of oil often accumulate in coastal regions where cyanobacterial mats are prevalent (Chap. 4), and this led to the examination of how these microorganisms participate in mitigation of the effects of oil pollution. Fourth, cyanobacteria may be a viable source of biofuel. As such, the rise of cyanobacteria, cyanobacteria and oil pollution, and cyanobacteria as a source of biofuel (cyanofuel) can be equated, respectfully, with Earth’s past, present and future. In this chapter we emphasize connections between all three through consideration of cyanobacterial physiology, ecology and molecular biology. We wish to emphasize the persistence of cyanobacteria through geological time and their tenacious hold on carbon.

Keywords

Hydrocarbon Degradation Ebro Delta Cyanobacterial Community Microcoleus Chthonoplastes Alternative Electron Flow 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgements

The work of the authors on cyanobacteria is supported through grants from the Qatar National Research Fund (QNRF) of Qatar Foundation, National Priorities Research Program (grant NPRP 27-6-7-24), Undergraduate Research Experience Program (UREP 07-020-1-004) from QNRF and an internal award from the College of Arts and Sciences of Qatar University. The views in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the opinion of either QNRF or QU. We thank students, staff and faculty in the Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences for invigorating field trips in Qatar, help in collecting samples and technical support and isolation of strains.

References

  1. Abed MM, Koster J (2005) The direct role of aerobic heterotrophic bacteria associated with cyanobacteria in the degradation of oil compounds. Int Biodeterior Biodegrad 55:29–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abed RMM, Safi NMD, Koster J, de Beer D, El-Nahhal Y, Rullkotter J, Garcia-Pichel F (2002) Microbial diversity of a heavily polluted microbial mat and its community changes following degradation of petroleum compounds. Appl Environ Microbiol 68:1674–1683PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Abed RM, Dobretsov S, Sudesh K (2009) Applications of cyanobacteria in biotechnology. J Appl Microbiol 106:1–12PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Al-Awadhi H, Al-Hasan RH, Sorkhoh NA, Salamah S, Radwan SS (2003) Establishing oil-degrading biofilms on gravel particles and glass plates. Int Biodeterior Biodegrad 51:181–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Al-Hasan RH, Khanafer M, Eliyas M, Radwan SS (2001) Hydrocarbon accumulation by picocyanobacteria from the Arabian Gulf. J Appl Microbiol 91:533–540PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Al-Thukair AA (2002) Effect of oil pollution on euendolithic cyanobacteria of the Arabian Gulf. Environ Microbiol 4:125–129PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Al-Thukair AA, Abed RMM, Mohamed L (2007) Microbial community of cyanobacteria mats in the intertidal zone of oil-polluted coast of Saudi Arabia. Mar Pollut Bull 54:173–179PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Altermann W, Kazmierczak J, Oren A, Wright DT (2006) Cyanobacterial calcification and its rock-building potential during 3.5 billion years of Earth history. Geobiology 4:147–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Angermayr SA, Hellingwerf KJ, Lindblad P, Teixeira de Mattos MJ (2009) Energy biotechnology with cyanobacteria. Curr Opin Biotechnol 20:257–263PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Antic MP, Jovancicevic BS, Ilic M, Vrvic MM, Schwarzbauer J (2006) Petroleum pollutant degradation by surface water microorganisms. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 13:320–327PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Aravind L, Ponting CP (1997) The GAF domain: an evolutionary link between diverse phototransducing proteins. Trends Biochem Sci 22:458–459PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Arp G, Reimer A, Reitner J (2001) Photosynthesis-induced biofilm calcification and calcium concentrations in Phanerozoic oceans. Science 292:1701–1704PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Azar C, Lindgren K, Larson E, Mollersten K (2006) Carbon capture and storage from fossil fuels and biomass – costs and potential role in stabilizing the atmosphere. Clim Change 74:1–3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Backman J, Moran K, McInroy DB, Mayer LA, The Expedition 302 Scientists (2006) Proceedings of the integrated ocean drilling program 302. Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Management International, Inc., EdinburghGoogle Scholar
  15. Bailey S, Melis A, Mackey KR, Cardol P, Finazzi G, van Dijken G, Berg GM, Arrigo K, Shrager J, Grossman A (2008) Alternative photosynthetic electron flow to oxygen in marine Synechococcus. Biochim Biophys Acta 1777:269–276PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Barth H-J (2003) The influence of cyanobacteria on oil polluted intertidal soils at the Saudi Arabian Gulf chores. Mar Pollut Bull 46:1245–1252PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Beecy DJ, Kuuskraa VA (2001) Status of U.S. geologic carbon sequestration research and technology. Environ Geosci 8:152–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Belay A (1997) Mass culture of Spirulina outdoors – the earthrise farms experience. In: Vonshak A (ed) Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira) physiology, cell biology and biotechnology. Taylor and Francis Ltd, London, pp 79–99, 254 ppGoogle Scholar
  19. Benemann JR (2002) A technology roadmap for greenhouse gas abatement with Microalgae. Report to the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, and the International Energy Agency Greenhouse Gas Abatement Programme. http://www.co2captureandstorage.info/networks/networks.htm2003. Accessed 8 Feb 2010
  20. Benemann JR (2008) Opportunities and challenges in algae biofuels production. A position paper. http://www.fao.org/uploads/media/algae_positionpaper.pdf. Accessed 8 Feb 2010
  21. Benemann JR, Oswald WJ (1996) Final report to US DOE NETL systems and economic analysis of microalgae ponds for conversion of CO2 to biomass. http://www.osti.gov/bridge/servlets/purl/493389-FXQyZ2/webviewable/493389.pdf. Accessed 8 Feb 2010
  22. Benemann JR, Goebel RP, Weissman JC, Augenstein DC (1982) Microalgae as a source of liquid fuels. Final technical report USDOE–OER. http://www.osti.gov/bridge/product.biblio.jsp?query_id=0page=0osti_id=6374113. Accessed 8 Feb 2010Google Scholar
  23. Bird KJ, Charpentier RR, Gautier L, Houseknecht DW, Klett TR, Pitman JK, Moore TE, Schenk CJ, Tennyson ME, Wandrey, Craig J (2008) Circum-Arctic resource appraisal; estimates of undiscovered oil and gas north of the Arctic Circle. U.S. Geological Survey fact sheet 2008–3049, Version 1.0, 23 July 2008, 4 p. Initial release online at http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2008/3049/
  24. Brady DL, Apel WA, Walton MR (2004) Screening of cyanobacterial species for calcification. Biotechnol Prog 20:1345–1351Google Scholar
  25. Braun RL, Burnham AK (1993) Chemical reaction model for oil and gas generation from type I and Type II kerogen. Office of Scientific and Technical Information P.O. Box 62, Oak Ridge, TN 37831, pp 30Google Scholar
  26. Brinkhuis H, Schouten S, Collinson ME, Sluijs A, Sinninghe Damsté JS, Dickens GR, Huber M, Cronin TM, Onodera J, Takahashi K, Bujak JP, Stein R, van der Burgh J, Eldrett JS, Harding IC, Lotter AF, Sangiorgi F, van Konijnenburg-van Cittert H, de Leeuw JW, Matthiessen J, Backman J, Moran K, The Expedition 302 Scientists (2006) Episodic fresh surface waters in the Eocene Arctic Ocean. Nature 441:606–609PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Cadoret JP, Bernard O (2008) Lipid biofuel production with microalgae: potential and challenges. J Soc Biol 202:201–211PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Chaillan F, Gugger M, Saliot A, Couté A, Oudot J (2006) Role of cyanobacteria in the biodegradation of crude oil by a tropical cyanobacterial mat. Chemosphere 62:1574–1582PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Chenier MR, Beaumier D, Fortin N, Roy R, Driscoll BT, Lawrence JR, Greer CW (2006) Influence of nutrient inputs, hexadecane, and temporal variations on denitrification and community composition of river biofilms. Appl Environ Microbiol 72:575–584PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Clark D, Heaviside J, Habib K (2004) Reservoir properties of Arab carbonates, Al Rayyan Field, offshore Qatar. Geol Soc Lond Spec Publ 235:193–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Cohen Y (2002) Bioremediation of oil by marine microbial mats. Int Microbiol 5:189–193PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Collister J, Ehrlich R, Mango F, Johnson G (2004) Modification of the petroleum system concept: origins of alkanes and isoprenoids in crude oils. AAPG Bull 88:587–611CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. De Oteyza TG, Grimalt JO, Diestra E, Sole A, Esteve I (2004) Changes in the composition of polar and apolar crude oil fractions under the action of Microcoleus consortia. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 66:226–232PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Dismukes GC, Klimov VV, Baranov SV, Kozlov YN, DasGupta J, Tyryshkin A (2001) The origin of atmospheric oxygen on Earth: the innovation of oxygenic photosynthesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98:2170–2175PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Fattom A, Shilo M (1984) Hydrophobicity as an adhesion mechanism of benthic cyanobacteria. Appl Environ Microbiol 47:135–143PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Fowler MG, Stasiuk LD, Hearn M, Obermajer M (2004) Evidence for Gloeocapsomorpha prisca in Late Devonian source rocks from Southern Alberta, Canada. Org Geochem 35:425–441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Gallego JR, González-Rojas E, Peláez AI, Sánchez J, García-Martínez MJ, Ortiz JE, Ortiz JE, Torres T, Llamas JF (2006) Natural attenuation and bioremediation of Prestige fuel oil along the Atlantic coast of Galicia (Spain). Org Geochem 37:1869–1884CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Glasby GP (2006) Abiogenic origin of hydrocarbons: an historical overview. Resour Geol 56:83–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gold T (1999) The deep, hot biosphere. Copernicus Books, New York, 235 pp. ISBN 0-387-98546-8Google Scholar
  40. Gopalan B, Katz J (2008) Formation of long tails during breakup of oil droplets mixed with dispersants in locally isotropic turbulence. Abstract ID: BAPS.2008.DFD.MH.4. 61st annual meeting of the APS Division of Fluid Dynamics, San Antonio, TexasGoogle Scholar
  41. Hellingwerf K, Teixeira de Mattos MJ (2009) Alternative routes to biofuels: light-driven biofuel formation from CO2 and water based on the “Photanol” approach. J Biotechnol 142:87–90PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Höckelmann C, Becher PG, von Reuss SH, Jüttner F (2009) Sesquiter­penes of the geosmin-producing cyanobacterium Calothrix PCC 7507 and their toxicity to invertebrates. Z Naturforsch 64:49–55Google Scholar
  43. Huang S, Wilhelm SW, Nianzhi J, Feng C (2010) Ubiquitous cyanobacterial podoviruses in the global oceans unveiled through viral DNA polymerase gene sequences. ISME J 4(10):1243–1251. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ismej.2010.56 Google Scholar
  44. Hyne NJ (2001) Nontechnical guide to petroleum geology, exploration, drilling, and production. PennWell Corporation, Tulsa, pp 4. ISBN 087814823XGoogle Scholar
  45. Jiayu N, Jianyi H (1999) Formation and distribution of heavy oil and tar sands in China. Mar Petrol Geol 16:85–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Jüttner F (1991) Quantitative trace analysis of volatile organic compounds. Method Enzymol 167:609–616CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kah LC, Riding R (2007) Mesoproterozoic carbon dioxide levels inferred from calcified cyanobacteria. Geology 35:799–802CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Khan NY (2008) Integrated management of pollution stress in the Gulf. In: Abuzinad AH et al (eds) Protecting the Gulf’s marine ecosystem from pollution. Birkhauser Verlag AG, Basel/Boston/Berlin, 285 pp. ISBN 978-3-7643-7945-9Google Scholar
  49. Kumar MS, Muralitharan G, Thajuddin N (2009) Screening of a hypersaline cyanobacterium, Phormidium tenue, for the degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons: naphthalene and anthracene. Biotechnol Lett 31:1863–1866PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kvenvolden KA (2006) Organic geochemistry – a retrospective of its first 70 years. Org Geochem 37:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Lee BD, Apel WA, Walton MR (2004) Screening of cyanobacterial species for calcification. Biotechnol Prog 20:1345–1351PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Lida T, Waki T, Nakamura K, Mukouzaka Y, Kudo T (2009) The GAF-like-domain containing transcriptional regulator DfdR is a sensor protein for dibenzofuran and several hydrophobic aromatic compounds. J Bacteriol 191:123–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Lidz B, Gibbons H (2008) Research on whitings (floating patches of calcium carbonate mud) leads to possible explanation of immense middle east oil deposits. Sound Waves Monthly Newsletter http://soundwaves.usgs.gov/2008/07/research.html. Accessed 9 Feb 2010
  54. Liu X, Curtis R (2009) Neutral lipid producing cyanobacteria. File Number M9-017, Arizona State University, TempeGoogle Scholar
  55. Llirós M, Gaju N, de Oteyza TG, Grimalt JO, Esteve I, Martínez-Alonso M (2008) Microcosm experiments of oil degradation by microbial mats. II. The changes in microbial species. Sci Total Environ 393:39–49PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Mattes TE, Alexander AK, Richardson PM, Munk AC, Han CS, Stothard P, Coleman NV (2008) The genome of Polaromonas sp. strain JS666: insights into the evolution of a hydrocarbon- and xenobiotic-degrading bacterium, and features of relevance to biotechnology. Appl Environ Microbiol 74:6405–6416PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Minas W, Gunkel W (1995) Oil pollution in the North Sea – a microbiological point of view. Helgol Mar Res 49:143–158Google Scholar
  58. Mühling M, Belay A, Whitton BA (2005) Screening Arthrospira (Spirulina) strains for heterotrophy. J Appl Phycol 17:129–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Murrell MC, Lores EM (2004) Phytoplankton and zooplankton seasonal dynamics in a subtropical estuary: importance of cyanobacteria. J Plankton Res 26(3):71–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. National Academy of Sciences (2009) Liquid transportation fuels from coal and biomass; technological status, costs, and environmental impacts. National Academies Press, Washington, DC, p 388Google Scholar
  61. National Geographic Special Issue March (2009) Repowering the planet. National Geographic Society, Washington, DC, pp 96Google Scholar
  62. Nobles Jr DR, Brown Jr RM (2008) Production and secretion of glucose in photosynthetic prokaryotes (Cyanobacteria). US Patent Application Publication US 2008/0085520 A1Google Scholar
  63. Novis PM, Whitehead D, Gregorich EG, Hunt JE, Sparrow AD, Hopkins DW, Elberling B, Greenfield LG (2007) Annual carbon fixation in terrestrial populations of Nostoc commune (Cyanobacteria) from an Antarctic dry valley is driven by temperature regime. Glob Change Biol 13:1224–1237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. NREL (2009) Algal Biofuels R&D at NREL. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, 3 pp. Available at http://www.nrel.gov/biomass/proj_microalgal_biofuels.html. Accessed 8 Feb 2010
  65. Pacific Rim Summit on Industrial Biotechnology and Bioenergy in Honolulu (2009) http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-169737441.html. Accessed 8 Feb 2010
  66. Pearson PN, Palmer MR (2000) Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations over the past 60 million years. Nature 406:695–699PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Pentecost A (2005) Travertine. Springer, Dordrecht, 446 ppGoogle Scholar
  68. Potts M (1979) Ethylene production in a hot brine environment. Arch Hydrobiol 87:198–204Google Scholar
  69. Potts M (1984) Nitrogen fixation in mangrove forests. In: Por FD (ed) Hydrobiology of the mangal. Dr W Junk Publishing Co, The Hague, pp 155–162Google Scholar
  70. Radwan SS, Al-Hasan RH (2000) Oil pollution and cyanobacteria. In: Whitton BA, Potts M (eds) The ecology of cyanobacteria. Kluwer Academic Publishers, New York, pp 307–319, 704 ppGoogle Scholar
  71. Raghukumar C, Vipparty V, David JJ, Chandramohan D (2001) Degradation of crude oil by marine cyanobacteria. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 57:433–436PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Riding R (2006) Cyanobacterial calcification, carbon dioxide concentrating mechanisms, and Proterozoic-Cambrian changes in atmospheric composition. Geobiology 4:299–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Rocap G, Larimer FW, Lamerdin J, Malfatti S, Chain P, Ahlgren NA, Arellano A, Coleman M, Hauser L, Hess WR, Johnson ZI, Land M, Lindell D, Post AF, Regala W, Shah M, Shaw SL, Steglich C, Sullivan MB, Ting CS, Tolonen A, Webb EA, Zinser ER, Chisholm SW (2003) Genome divergence in two Prochlorococcus ecotypes reflects oceanic niche differentiation. Nature 424:1042–1047PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Roeselers G, van Loosdrecht MCM, Muyzer G (2008) Phototrophic biofilms and their potential applications. J Appl Phycol 20:227–235PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Royer DL (2008) Linkages between CO2, climate, and evolution in deep time. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105:407–408PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Sanchez O, Diestra E, Esteve I, Mas J (2005) Molecular characterization of an oil-degrading cyanobacterial consortium. Microb Ecol 50:580–588PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Sanchez O, Ferrera I, Vigues N, de Oteya TG, Grimalt J, Mas J (2006) Role of cyanobacteria in oil biodegradation by microbial mats. Int Biodeterior Biodegrad 58:186–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Schulze-Lam S, Harauz G, Beveridge TJ (1992) Participation of a cyanobacterial S layer in fine-grain mineral formation. J Bacteriol 24:7971–7981Google Scholar
  79. Schwartzman DW, Caldiera K (2002) Cyanobacterial emergence at 2.8 GYA and greenhouse feedbacks. Abstract 105–1 of Annual meeting of the geological society of America, Denver, COGoogle Scholar
  80. Seddon JRT, Mullin T (2007) The motion of a prolate ellipsoid in a rotating Stokes flow. J Fluid Mech 583:123–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Sheehan J, Dunahay T, Benemann J, Roessler P (1998) Look back at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Aquatic Species Program: biodiesel from algae; close-out report. NREL Report No. TP-580-24190, 325 pp. http://www.nrel.gov/docs/legosti/fy98/24190.pdf. Accessed 8 Feb 2010
  82. Shilo M, Ali F (1987) Cyanobacterium-produced bioemulsifier composition and solution thereof. United States Patent 4693842Google Scholar
  83. Speight JG (1999) The chemistry and technology of petroleum. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 215–216, 934 pp. ISBN 0824702174Google Scholar
  84. Stein R (2006) The Paleocene-Eocene (“Greenhouse“) Arctic Ocean paleoenvironment: implications from organic-carbon and biomarker records (IODP-ACEX Expedition 302). Geophys Res Abstr 8:06718. http://www.cosis.net/abstracts/EGU06/06718/EGU06-J-06718-1.pdf. Retrieved 16 Oct 2007
  85. Stockner JG, Callieri C, Cronberg G (2000) Picoplankton and other non-bloomforming cyanobacteria in lakes. In: Whitton BA, Potts M (eds) The ecology of cyanobacteria their diversity in time and space. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp 195–231, 669 ppGoogle Scholar
  86. Sundquist ET, Burruss RC, Faulkner SP, Gleason RA, Harden JW, Kharaka YK, Tieszen LL, Waldrop MP (2008) Carbon sequestration to mitigate climate change: U.S. Geological Survey, fact sheet 2008–3097, 4 ppGoogle Scholar
  87. Taketani RG, dos Santos HF, van Elsas JD, Rosado AS (2009) Characterisation of the effect of a simulated hydrocarbon spill on diazotrophs in mangrove sediment mesocosm. Appl Environ Microbiol 96:343–354Google Scholar
  88. Tanaka D, Tanaka S, Yamashiro Y, Nakamura S (2008) Distribution of oil-degrading bacteria in coastal seawater, Toyama Bay, Japan. Environ Toxicol 23:563–569PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. The International Tanker Owners Pollution Federation Limited – ITOPF Ltd (2009) ITOPF Ltd, London. http://www.itopf.com/information-services/. Accessed 8 Feb 2010
  90. Thomas AD, Hoon S, Linton PE (2008) Carbon dioxide fluxes from cyanobacteria crusted soils in the Kalahari. Appl Soil Ecol 39:254–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Torres S, Fjetland CR, Lammers PJ (2005) Alkane-induced expression, substrate binding profile, and immunolocalization of a cytochrome P450 encoded on the nifD excision element of Anabaena 7120. BMC Microbiol 5:16PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. UNEP (2006) United Nations environment programme’s division for environmental conventions. Can carbon dioxide storage help cut greenhouse emissions? Information Unit for Conventions, International Environment House, Geneva, 24 ppGoogle Scholar
  93. Van Hamme JD, Singh A, Ward OP (2003) Recent advances in petroleum microbiology. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 67:503–549PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Vézina S, Vincent WF (1997) Arctic cyanobacteria and limnological properties of their environment: Bylot Island, Northwest Territories, Canada. (73°N, 80°W). Polar Biol 17:523–534CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Zehr JP, Bench SR, Carter BJ, Hewson I, Niazi F, Shi T, Tripp HJ, Affourit JP (2008) Globally distributed uncultivated oceanic N2-fixing cyanobacteria lack oxygenic photosystem II. Science 322:1110–1112PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, College of Arts and SciencesQatar UniversityDohaQatar

Personalised recommendations