Advertisement

Adaptation as a Governance Practice

  • Monica Tennberg
Chapter

Abstract

In general terms, governance is the exercise of political, scientific, economic and administrative power to manage societies and their development. The concept of adaptation governance captures the multitude of issues, activities and actors engaged in adaptation to climate change. Adaptation to the impacts of climate change is a problem for governance, but one that is understood in different ways. Accordingly, the chapter develops two theoretical approaches to the study of adaptation governance, one drawing on the work of John Dewey, the other on the ideas of Michel Foucault. Adaptation governance does not appear from a political, economic and societal vacuum, but is closely related to existing political and administrative habits, customs and practices. Governance enhances or changes relations of responsibility. As a result of “responsibilisation” – increasing responsiveness in adaptation governance – practices of governance and power are developed, agencies are constructed and responsibilities for adaptation shared.

Keywords

Adaptation Governance Responsibilisation John Dewey Michel Foucault Governmentality 

References

  1. ACIA (2004). Arctic climate impact assessment. http://amap.no/acia/. Retrieved 17 May 2010.
  2. Adger, W. N. (2006). Vulnerability. Global Environmental Change, 16(3), 268–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Agrawal, A. (2005). Environmentality. Technologies of government and the making of subjects. Durham/London: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Allen, A. (2002). Power, subjectivity and agency: Between Arendt and Foucault. International Journal of Philosophical Studies, 10(2), 131–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Armitage, D., & Plummer, R. (Eds.). (2010). Adaptive capacity and environmental governance. Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  6. Armitage, D., Berkes, F., & Doubleday, N. (Eds.). (2007). Adaptive co-management. Collaboration, learning and multi-level governance. Vancouver: UBC Press.Google Scholar
  7. Bäckstrand, K. (2006). Democratizing global governance? Stakeholder democracy after the world summit on sustainable development. European Journal of International Relations, 12(4), 467–498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Beck, U. (2008). Reframing power in the globalized world. Organization Studies, 29, 793–804.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Berkes, F., & Jolly, D. (2001). Adapting to climate change: Social-ecological resilience in a Canadian Western Arctic community. Conservation Ecology, 5(2), 18. http://www.consecol.org/vol5/iss2/art18. Retrieved 26 May 2010.
  10. Bohman, J. (1999). International regimes and democratic governance: Political equality and influence in global institutions. International Affairs, 75(3), 499–513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bray, D. (2009). Pragmatic cosmopolitanism: A Deweyan approach to democracy beyond the nation-state. Millennium, 37(3), 683–719.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Brooks, M., Gagnon-Lebrun, F., & Sauvé, C. (2009). Prioritizing climate change risks and actions on adaptation: A review of selected institutions, tools and approaches. Ottawa: Policy Research Initiative.Google Scholar
  13. Carvalho, A. (2005). Governmentality of climate change and the public sphere. http://repositorium.sdum.uminho.pt/handle/1822/3070. Retrieved 17 May 2010.
  14. Chapin, F. S., Peterson, G., Berkes, F., Gallaghan, T. V., Angelstam, P., Apps, M., Beler, C., Bergeron, Y., Crépin, A.-S., Danell, K., Elmqvist, T., Folke, C., Forbes, B., Fresco, N., Juday, G., Niemelä, J., Shvidenko, A., & Whiteman, G. (2004). Resilience and vulnerability of northern regions to social and environmental change. Ambio, 33(6), 344–349.Google Scholar
  15. Chapin, F. S., III, Hoel, M., Carpenter, S. R., Lubchenco, J., Walker, B., Callaghan, T. V., Folke, C., Levin, S., Mäler, K.-G., Nilsson, C., Barrett, S., Berkes, F., Crépin, A.-S., Danell, K., Rosswall, T., Starrett, D., Xepapadeas, T., & Zimov, S. A. (2006). Building resilience and adaptation to manage Arctic change. Ambio, 35(4), 198–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cochran, M. (2002). A democratic critique of cosmopolitan democracy: Pragmatism from the bottom-up. European Journal of International Relations, 8(4), 517–548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cohen, M. D. (2007). Reading Dewey: Reflections on the study of routine. Organization Studies, 28, 773–786.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Colebatch, H. K. (2002). Government and governmentality: Using multiple approaches to the analysis of government. Australian Journal of Political Science, 37(3), 417–435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cruikshank, B. (1999). The will to empower. Democratic citizens and other subjects. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Dean, M. (1999). Governmentality. Power and rule in modern society. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  21. Dewey, J. (1916/1967–87). Force and coercion. In J. Boydston (Ed.), John Dewey. The middle works of John Dewey, 1899–1924 (Vol. 10). Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Dewey, J. (1927/1981–1991). The public and its problems. In J. Boydston (Ed.), John Dewey. The later works of John Dewey, 1925–1953 (Vol. 2). Carbondale: Southern Illinois University.Google Scholar
  23. Dillon, M. (1995). Sovereignty and governmentality: From the problematics of the new world order to the ethical problematics of the world order. Alternatives, 20, 323–368.Google Scholar
  24. Dobson, A. (2003). Citizenship and the environment. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Fang, S.-Z. (2009). Governing environment: Governmentality in global climate politics. The International Journal of the Humanities, 7(10), 17–34.Google Scholar
  26. Festenstein, M. (1997). Pragmatism and political theory. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  27. Finan, T. J., & Nelson, D. R. (2009). Decentralized planning and climate adaptation: Toward transparent governance. In N. W. Adger, I. Lorenzoni, & K. O’Brien (Eds.), Adapting to climate change. Thresholds, values, governance (pp. 335–349). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Fischler, R. (2000). Communicative planning theory: A Foucauldian assessment. Journal of Planning Education and Research, 19, 358–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Forbes, B. (2008). Equity, vulnerability and vesilience in social-ecological systems: A Contemporary example from the Russian Arctic. Equity and the Environment, 15, 203–236.Google Scholar
  30. Foucault, M. (1972). Archaeology of knowledge. London: Tavistock Publications.Google Scholar
  31. Foucault, M. (1991). Governmentality. In G. Burchell, C. Gordon, & P. Miller (Eds.), The Foucault effect. Studies in governmentality (pp. 87–104). Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. With two lectures by and an interview with Michel Foucault.Google Scholar
  32. Foucault, M. (2007). Security, territory and population. Lectures at the Collège de France 1977–1978. Houndmills/New York: Palgrave-McMillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Garrelts, H., & Lange, H. (2011). Path dependencies and path change in complex fields of action: Climate adaptation policies in Germany in the realm of flood risk management. Ambio, 40, 200–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Garrison, J. (1998). Foucault, Dewey, and self-creation. Educational Philosophy and Theory, 30(2), 111–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Glaas, E., Jonsson, A., Hjerpe, M., & Andersson-Skold, Y. (2010). Managing climate change vulnerabilities: Formal institutions and knowledge use as determinants of adaptive capacity at the local level in Sweden. Local Environment, 15(6), 525–539.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Glover, L. (1999). Atmosphere for sale: Inventing commercial climate change. Bulletin of Science Technology Society, 19, 501–510.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Glover, L. (2006). Postmodern climate change. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  38. Goodin, R. E., & Dryzek, J. S. (2006). Deliberative impacts: The macro-political uptake of mini-publics. Politics & Society, 34(2), 219–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Healey, P. (2009). The pragmatic tradition in planning thought. Journal of Planning Education and Research, 28, 277–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Held, D. (2009). Restructuring global governance: Cosmopolitanism, democracy and the global order. Millennium, 37(3), 535–547.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hewitt, R. (2007). Dewey and power. Renewing democratic faith. Rotterdam: Sense.Google Scholar
  42. Higgins, V. (2001). Calculating climate: Advanced liberalism and the governing of risk in Australian drought management. Journal of Sociology, 37(3), 299–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hildreth, R. W. (2009). Reconstructing Dewey on power. Political Theory, 37(6), 780–807.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hindess, B. (2005). Politics of government: Michel Foucault’s analysis of political reason. Alternatives, 30, 389–413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hulme, M. (2008). The conquering of climate discourses of fear and their dissolution. The Geographical Journal, 174(1), 5–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. IPCC. (2007). Assessment of adaptation practices, options, constraints and capacity. In M. L. Parry, O. F. Canziani, J. P. Palutikof, P. J. van der Linden, & C. E. Hanson (Eds.), Climate change 2007: Impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Contribution of working group II to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change (pp. 717–743). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  47. Janssen, M. A., & Ostrom, E. (2006). Resilience, vulnerability, and adaptation: A cross-cutting theme of the international human dimensions programme on global environmental change. Global Environmental Change, 16(3), 237–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Jessop, B. (2007). From micro-powers to governmentality: Foucault’s work on statehood, state formation and state power. Political Geography, 26, 34–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kadlec, A. (2006). Reconstructing Dewey: The philosophy of critical pragmatism. Polity, 38(4), 519–542.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kadlec, A. (2007). Dewey’s critical pragmatism. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
  51. Kaufman-Osborn, T. V. (1984). John Dewey and the liberal science of community. The Journal of Politics, 46(4), 1142–1165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kaufman-Osborn, T. V. (1992). Pragmatism, policy science and the state. In J. E. Tiles (Ed.), John Dewey. Critical assessments (pp. 244–266). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  53. Kay, A. (2005). A critique of the use of path dependency in policy studies. Public Administration, 83(3), 443–571.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Keeney, R. L., & McDaniels, T. L. (2001). A framework to guide thinking and analysis regarding climate change policies. Risk Analysis: An International Journal, 21(6), 989–1000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Keskitalo, C. (2010). Developing adaptation policy and practice in Europe: Multi-level governance of climate change. Berlin: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Koivurova, T., Keskitalo, C., & Bankes, N. (Eds.). (2009). Climate governance in the Arctic. Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  57. Kosnowski, J. (2005). Artful discussion: John Dewey’s classroom as a model of deliberative association. Political Theory, 33(5), 654–677.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Lemke, T. (2007). An indigestible meal? Foucault, governmentality and state theory. Distinktion, 15, 43–65. http://www.thomaslemkeweb.de/publikationen/IndigestibleMealfinal5.pdf. Retrieved 17 May 2010.
  59. Liverman, D. M. (2008). Conventions of climate change: Constructions of danger and the dispossession of the atmosphere. Journal of Historical Geography. doi:10.1016/j.jhg.2008.08.008.Google Scholar
  60. Lovecraft, A. (2008). Climate change and Arctic cases: A normative exploration of social-ecological system analysis. In S. Vanderheiden (Ed.), Political theory and climate change (pp. 91–120). Massachusetts: MIT.Google Scholar
  61. Luxon, N. (2008). Ethics and subjectivity. Practices of self-governance in the late lectures of Michel Foucault. Political Theory, 36(3), 377–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. McDonald, H. P. (2004). John Dewey and environmental philosophy. Albany: State University of New York.Google Scholar
  63. Neumann, I. B., & Sending, O. J. (2010). Governing the global polity: Practice, mentality, rationality. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan.Google Scholar
  64. Nilsson, A. (2007). A changing Arctic climate: Science and policy in the Arctic climate impact assessment. Linköping: University of Linköping, Department of Water and Environmental Studies.Google Scholar
  65. North, D. (1990). Institutions, institutional change and economic performance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  66. O’Neill, J., Holland, A., & Light, A. (2008). Environmental values. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  67. Ockwell, D., Whitmarsh, L., & O’Neill, S. (2009). Reorienting climate change communication for effective mitigation: Forcing people to be green or fostering grass-roots engagement? Science Communication, 30(3), 305–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Oels, A. (2005). Theorising power in global climate politics. From bio-power to neoliberal governmentality? Presentation at the International Studies Association’s annual convention in Honolulu.Google Scholar
  69. Okereke, C., & Bulkeley, H. (2007). Conceptualizing climate change governance beyond the international regime: A review of four theoretical approaches. Tyndall centre working paper 112. http://www.tyndall.uea.ac.uk/book/export/html/297. Retrieved 17 May 2010.
  70. Olssen, M. (2002). Michel Foucault as “thin” communitarian: Difference, community and democracy. Cultural Studies, 2(4), 483–513.Google Scholar
  71. Orlowe, B. (2009). The past, the present and some possible futures of adaptation. In N. W. Adger, I. Lorenzoni, & K. O’Brien (Eds.), Adapting to climate change: Thresholds, values, governance (pp. 131–163). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  72. Pellizzoni, L. (2003). Knowledge, uncertainty and the transformation of the public sphere. European Journal of Social Theory, 6(3), 327–355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Pellizzoni, L. (2004). Responsibility and environmental governance. Environmental Politics, 13(3), 541–565.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Pettenger, M. E. (2007). The social construction of climate change: Power, knowledge, norms, discourses. Aldershot: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  75. Potter, E. (2009). Calculating interests: Climate change and the politics of life. http://journal.media-culture-org.au/index.php/mcjournal/article/view/182. Retrieved 2 Feb 2010.
  76. Reynolds, J. M. (2004). “Pragmatic humanism” in Foucault’s later work. Canadian Journal of Political Science, 37(4), 951–977.Google Scholar
  77. Roberts, N. (2004). Public deliberation in an age of direct citizen participation. The American Review of Public Administration, 34(4), 315–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Rose, N. (1996). Powers of freedom: Reframing political thought. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  79. Rose, N. (2001). The politics of life itself. Theory, Culture & Society, 18(6), 1–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Rose, N. (2007). The politics of life itself: Biomedicine, power and subjectivity in the twenty-first century. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  81. Rutherford, P. (2000). The problem of nature in contemporary social theory. Ph.D. Thesis. Research School of Social Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra. http://thesis.anu.edu.au/uploads/approved/adt-ANU20011217.114840/public/02whole.pdf. Retrieved 5 Aug 2010.
  82. Schofield, B. (2002). Partners in power: Governing the self-sustaining community. Sociology, 36(3), 663–683.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Shadian, J., & Tennberg, M. (Eds.). (2009). Legacies and change in polar sciences: Historical, legal and political reflections on the international polar year. Aldershot: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  84. Shields, P. M. (2003). The community of inquiry: Classical pragmatism and public administration. Administration & Society, 35(5), 510–538.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Smit, B., & Pilifosova, O. (2003). From adaptation to adaptive capacity and vulnerability reduction. In J. B. Smith, R. J. T. Klein, & S. Huq (Eds.), Climate change, adaptive capacity and development (pp. 1–20). London: Imperial College Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Smit, B., & Wandel, J. (2006). Adaptation, adaptive capacity and vulnerability. Global Environmental Change, 16(3), 282–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Staber, U., & Sÿdow, J. (2002). Organizational adaptive capacity: A structuration perspective. Journal of Management Inquiry, 11(4), 408–424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Summerville, J., Adkins, B. A., & Kendall, G. (2008). Community participation, rights and responsibilities: The governmentality of sustainable development policy in Australia. Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy, 26, 696–711.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Swanson, D., Barg, S., Tyler, S., Venema, H., Tomar, S., Bhadwal, S., Nair, S., Ro, D., & Drexhage, J. (2010). Seven tools for creating adaptive policies. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 77(6), 924–939.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Sydneysmith, R., Andrachuk, M., Smit, B., & Hovelsrud, G. (2010). Vulnerability and adaptive capacity in Arctic communities. In D. Armitage & R. Plummer (Eds.), Adaptive capacity and environmental governance (pp. 133–156). Berlin: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Tennberg, M. (2000). Arctic environmental cooperation: A study in governmentality. Aldershot: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  92. Thompson, K. (2003). Forms of resistance: Foucault on tactical reversal and self-formation. Continental Philosophy Review, 36, 113–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Tobias, S. (2005). Foucault on freedom and capability. Theory, Culture and Society, 22(4), 65–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Turnbull, N. (2008). Dewey’s philosophy of questioning: Science, practical reason and democracy. History of the Human Sciences, 21(1), 49–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Turner, B. L., II, Matson, P. A., McCarthy, J. J., Corell, R. W., Christensen, L., Eckley, N., Hovelsrud-Broda, G., Kasperson, J. X., Kasperson, R. E., Luers, A., Martello, M. L., Mathiesen, S., Naylor, R., Polsky, C., Pulsipher, A., Schiller, A., Selin, H., & Tyler, N. (2003). Illustrating the coupled human-environment system for vulnerability analysis: Three case studies. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 100(14), 8080–8085.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Turnheim, B., & Tezcan, M. Y. (2009). Complex governance to cope with global environmental risk: An assessment of the United Nations framework convention on climate change. Science and Engineering Ethics. doi:10.1007/s11948-009-9170-1.Google Scholar
  97. Voβ, J.-P., Smith, A., & Grin, J. (2009). Designing long-term policy: Rethinking transition management. Policy Science, 42, 275–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Walker, W. E., Rahman, S. A., & Cave, J. (2001). Adaptive policies, policy analysis and policy-making. European Journal of Operational Research, 128, 282–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Webber, J. (2001). Why can’t we be Deweyan citizens? Educational Theory, 51(2), 171–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Weber, E. P. (2008). Facing and managing climate change: Assumptions, science and governance response. Political Science, 60(1), 133–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Wilson, H. (2006). Review essay: Environmental democracy and the green state. Polity, 38(2), 276–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V.  2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Arctic CentreUniversity of LaplandRovaniemiFinland

Personalised recommendations