• Ramón SpaaijEmail author
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Criminology book series (BRIEFSCRIMINOL)


The tragedy that unfolded in Norway on the afternoon of 22 July 2011 has put acts of terrorism carried out by single individuals squarely on the political and media agendas of several western societies. Moreover, it has generated serious reflection on the threat posed by “lone wolves” and the capacity of existing counterterrorism measures to interdict this type of attack. On that fateful day, an improvised explosive device hidden in a car was detonated at the centre of the executive government quarter in Oslo, killing eight people.


Terrorist Attack Moral Disengagement Homeland Security Terrorism Threat Improvise Explosive Device 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Schmid AP (2004) Terrorism: the definitional problem. Case Western Reserve J Int Law 36:375–419Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    BBC (2011) Norway: Anders Behring Breivik claims ‘two more cells’. BBC News, 25 July. Accessed 26 July 2011
  3. 3.
  4. 4.
    Erlanger S (2011) Norway suspect denies guilt and suggests he did not act alone. The New York Times, New York (25 July)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Millar L (2011) I didn’t act alone, Norway attacker tells court. ABC News, 26 July. Accessed 27 July 2011
  6. 6.
    Vogel T (2011) EU considers response to Norway attacks. The European Voice, 25 July. Accessed 30 July 2011
  7. 7.
    European Police Chiefs Convention (2011) Counter terrorism working group conclusions. Europol, The Hague Accessed 15 August 2011
  8. 8.
    Europol (2011) TE-SAT 2011: EU terrorism situation and trend report. Europol, HagueGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Irvine D (2011) Australia’s security outlook. Presented at the Security in Government Conference, National Convention Centre, Canberra, 26 JulyGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Thomas J (1999) New face of terror crimes: ‘Lone wolf’ weaned on hate. The New York Times, New York (16 August 1)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Johnston D, Risen J (2003) Lone terrorists may strike in the US agencies warn. The New York Times, New York (23 February 15)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Marks A (2003) Lone wolves’ pose explosive terror threat. The Christian Science Monitor, Boston (27 May 2)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Mueller R (2003) War on terrorism: Testimony of Robert S. Mueller, III, Director, FBI, before the Select Committee on Intelligence of the United States Senate, Washington, 11 February 2003. Accessed 6 June 2007
  14. 14.
    Anonymous (2010) Intelligence officials warn attempted Al Qaeda attack months away. 2 February. Accessed 4 July 2010
  15. 15.
    CNN (2011) Obama: biggest terror fear is the lone wolf. CNN Situation Room, 16 August. Accessed 18 August 2011
  16. 16.
    Kerley D (2010) Homeland security: more ‘lone wolves’ circulating in US. ABC News, 6 March. Accessed 16 August 2011
  17. 17.
    Department of Homeland Security (2009) Rightwing extremism: current economic and political climate fueling resurgence in radicalization and recruitment. DHS, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Weimann G (2006) Terror on the internet. United States Institute of Peace Press, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lia B (2005) Globalisation and the future of terrorism: patterns and predictions. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Castells M (2010) The information age: economy, society and culture, 2nd edn. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford (volumes I-III)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Post JM (1998) Terrorist psycho-logic: terrorist behavior as a product of psychological forces. In: Reich W (ed) Origins of terrorism. Woodrow Wilson Center Press, Washington, pp 25–41Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Bandura A (1998) Mechanisms of moral disengagement. In: Reich W (ed) Origins of terrorism. Woodrow Wilson Center Press, Washington, pp 161–191Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hudson R (1999) The sociology and psychology of terrorism: Who becomes a terrorist and why. Federal Research Division, Library of Congress, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Horgan J (2005) The psychology of terrorism. Routledge, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Forest JJ (ed) (2006) The making of a terrorist: Recruitment, training, and root causes. Praeger Security International, WestportGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Mullins S (2009) Parallels between crime and terrorism: a social psychological perspective. Stud Conflict Terrorism 32(9):811–830CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Moghaddam F (2005) The staircase to terrorism: a psychological exploration. Am Psychol 60(2):161–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Crenshaw M (2003) The causes of terrorism. In: Jr Kegley CW (ed) The new global terrorism: characteristics, causes, controls. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, pp 92–105Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hoffman B (2003) Al Qaeda, trends in terrorism, and future potentialities: an assessment. RAND, Santa MonicaGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hewitt C (2003) Understanding terrorism in America: from the Klan to al Qaeda. Routledge, New York Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Evans PR (n.d.) Methodical terrorism: How and why. Accessed 12 August 2011

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Social SciencesLa Trobe UniversityMelbourneAustralia

Personalised recommendations