Daily School Time, Workforce Participation, and Family Life: Time Spent in School as a Condition of Family Life

  • Ivo ZüchnerEmail author
Part of the Children’s Well-Being: Indicators and Research book series (CHIR, volume 5)


When children are of a certain age, family life is strongly linked to the school. Because attending school is mandatory in all countries, school time imposes limits on family life and family vacations. On the one hand, school time makes other family activities impossible at that time; on the other hand, it frees parents from having to care for or supervise their children. And, in most countries, school time extends from early morning to late afternoon. Only some countries such as Austria, Germany, Greece, and, in part, Italy, Portugal, and Switzerland have historically chosen shorter school times (Allemann-Ghionda 2005, pp. 77–78). Up to 2003, elementary and secondary school traditionally ended at lunchtime for the majority of students in Germany. But German school time has become a new issue during the last 10 years, because the policy on school time has changed through the implementation and expansion of so-called all-day schools providing lunch and an enlarged and changing time pattern (including extracurricular activities) in the afternoon. Two of the reasons for increasing the number of hours students (can) spend in school each day were the poor results of German students in international assessments of education standards and the demand for a better work–life balance for parents through all-day schools. As one can expect, such moves to change some aspects of society’s self-conception have raised a lot of discussions.


Family Life Extracurricular Activity Domestic Work Welfare Regime Life Balance 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Allemann-Ghionda, C. (2005). Die Ganztagsschule in Frankreich. In V. Ladenthin & J. Rekus (Eds.), Die Ganztagsschule: Alltag, Reform, Geschichte, Theorie (pp. 69–83). Weinheim: Juventa.Google Scholar
  2. Allemann-Ghionda, C. (2008). Zeitstrukturen (vor-)schulischer Bildung in Europa. In H. U. Otto & T. Coelen (Eds.), Grundbegriffe Ganztagsbildung. Das Handbuch (pp. 674–683). Wiesbaden: VS.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Augustin-Dittmann, S. (2005). The development of all-day schooling in Germany: How was it possible in this conservative welfare state? German Policy Studies, 6(3), 49–81.Google Scholar
  4. Beblo, M., Lauer, Ch, & Wrohlich, K. (2005). Ganztagsschulen und Erwerbsbeteiligung von Müttern: eine Mikrosimulationsstudie für Deutschland. Zeitschrift für ArbeitsmarktForschung, 38(2/3), 357–372.Google Scholar
  5. Bonoli, G. (1997). Classifying welfare states: A two-dimension approach. Journal of Social Policy, 26(3), 351–372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Castles, F. G., & Mitchell, D. (1993). Worlds of welfare and families of nations. In F. G. Castles (Ed.), Families of nations: Patterns of public policy in western democracies (pp. 93–128). Aldershot: Dartmouth.Google Scholar
  7. Coelen, Th. (2005). Synopse ganztägiger Bildungssysteme. Zwischenschritt auf dem Weg zu einer Typologie. In H. Otto & T. Coelen (Eds.), Ganztägige Bildungssystem. Innovation durch Vergleich (pp. 191–218). Münster: Waxmann.Google Scholar
  8. Esping-Andersen, G. (1990). The three worlds of welfare capitalism. Cambridge: Policy Press.Google Scholar
  9. Esping-Andersen, G. (1999). Social foundations of postindustrial economies. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. European Commission. (2003). The European Union labour force survey. Methods and definitions. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities.Google Scholar
  11. European Commission & Eurostat. (2000). Guidelines on harmonised European time use surveys. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities.Google Scholar
  12. Eurostat. (2004). How Europeans spend their time. Everyday life of women and men 2004 edition. 1998–2002. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities.Google Scholar
  13. Ferrera, M. (1996). The southern model of welfare in social Europe. Journal of European Social Policy, 6(1), 17–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gottschall, K., & Hagemann, K. (2002). Die Halbtagsschule in Deutschland – ein Sonderfall in Europa?! Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte, 41, 12–22.Google Scholar
  15. Holtappels, H. G., Klieme, E., Rauschenbach, Th, & Stecher, L. (Eds.). (2008). Ganztagsschule in Deutschland. Ergebnisse der Ausgangserhebung der “Studie zur Entwicklung von Ganztagsschulen” (StEG) (2nd ed.). Weinheim: Juventa.Google Scholar
  16. KMK - Konferenz der Kultusminister der Länder. (2011). Allgemein bildende Schulen in Ganztagsform in den Ländern in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland – Statistik 2005 bis 2009. Berlin: KMK.Google Scholar
  17. Leibfried, S. (1992). Towards a European welfare state? On integrating poverty regimes into the European Community. In Z. Ferge & J. E. Kolberg (Eds.), Social policy in a changing Europe (pp. 245–280). Frankfurt am Main: Campus Verlag.Google Scholar
  18. Lewis, J. (1992). Gender and the development of welfare regimes. Journal of European Social Policy, 2(3), 159–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ludwig, H. (2005). Die Entwicklung der modernen Ganztagsschule. In V. Ladenthin & J. Rekus (Eds.), Die Ganztagsschule: Alltag, Reform, Geschichte, Theorie (pp. 261–277). Weinheim: Juventa.Google Scholar
  20. Matthies, A.-L. (2002). Finnisches Bildungswesen und Familienpolitik. Ein “leuchtendes” Beispiel? Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte, 41, 38–45.Google Scholar
  21. OECD. (2001). Knowledge and skills for life. First results from the OECD program for international student assessment (PISA) 2000. Paris: OECD.Google Scholar
  22. Schneewind, K. A., Beckmann, M., & Engfer, A. (1983). Eltern und Kinder. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer.Google Scholar
  23. Stecher, L., Radisch, F., Fischer, N., & Klieme, E. (2007). After-school program in Germany: The educational quality of extracurricular activities in all-day schools. In Ministry of Education & Human Resource Development/Korean Educational Development Institute (Eds.), International conference for exploring the ways to activate the after-school program (Conference Transcript) (pp. 237–257). Busan: Korean Educational Development Institute.Google Scholar
  24. Veil, M. (2002). Ganztagschule mit Tradition: Frankreich. Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte, 41, 29–37.Google Scholar
  25. von Freymann, Th. (2005). Die Ganztagsschule in Finnland. In V. Ladenthin & J. Rekus (Eds.), Die Ganztagsschule: Alltag, Reform, Geschichte, Theorie (pp. 99–105). Weinheim: Juventa.Google Scholar
  26. Winch, C. (2005). Die Ganztagsschule in Großbritannien. In V. Ladenthin & J. Rekus (Eds.), Die Ganztagsschule: Alltag, Reform, Geschichte, Theorie (pp. 85–98). Weinheim: Juventa.Google Scholar
  27. Zuechner, I. (2008). Ganztagsschule und Familie. In H. G. Holtappels, E. Klieme, Th Rauschenbach, & L. Stecher (Eds.), Ganztagsschule in Deutschland (2nd ed., pp. 314–332). Weinheim: Juventa.Google Scholar
  28. Zuechner, I. (2011). Ganztagsschule und Familienleben. In N. Fischer, E. Klieme, H. G. Holtappels, Th Rauschenbach, & I. Züchner (Eds.), Ganztagsschule: Entwicklung, Qualität, Wirkungen: Längsschnittliche Befunde der Studie zur Entwicklung von Ganztagsschulen (pp. 291–311). Weinheim: Juventa.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.German Institute for International Educational Research (DIPF)Frankfurt/MainGermany

Personalised recommendations