Land Plant RNA Editing or: Don’t Be Fooled by Plant Organellar DNA Sequences

  • Sabrina Finster
  • Julia Legen
  • Yujiao Qu
  • Christian Schmitz-Linneweber
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Photosynthesis and Respiration book series (AIPH, volume 35)

Summary

“It seems likely that most if not all the genetic information in any organism is carried by nucleic acid – usually by DNA […].” Plant organellar genomes have a spelling problem. If the genome were a book, many words with “U”s (uridines) would be spelled with “C”s (cytidines) instead, and in certain plant species, the reverse would also be seen, with Cs replaced by Us. However, plants change these “mistakes” at the RNA level, correcting U to C and C to U at non-random positions, via a phenomenon called RNA editing. We hope Francis Crick would have forgiven us for messing up the above quote from his 1962 Nobel Laureate acceptance speech. You can return the sentence to its original meaning easily by following the rules of plant organellar RNA editing. However, even when spelled right, the statement still has a hole in it, maybe one that Francis Crick anticipated and thus started the sentence with, “It seems likely….” Because here’s the rub: Organellar genetic information cannot be read the easy way, by identifying open reading frames based on start and stop codons and predicting the protein sequences based on codons. Instead, it is far better to read the RNA itself or, better yet in experimental terms, look at the cDNA.

In this review, we will attempt to summarize the state of knowledge regarding RNA editing in plant organelles. We will mostly focus on the mechanistic aspects of RNA editing, with considerable space devoted to our understanding of editing site recognition. Following that, and at the center of this review, we will examine the latest developments in our understanding of the editing machinery. In the end, we will dare to take a quick look at some of the reasons behind the seemingly futile process of plant organellar RNA editing.

Keywords

Editing Site Cytidine Deaminase Editing Event Editing Activity Organellar Genome 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations:

3D –

Three-dimensional;

CMS –

Cytoplasmic male sterility;

cpRNPs –

Chloroplast ribonucleoproteins;

CRR –

Chloroplast respiratory reduction;

CURE –

Cytidine-to-uridine recognizing editor;

EMS –

Ethyl methane sulfonate;

GOBASE–

The organelle genome database;

MEF –

Mitochondrial editing factor;

NDH –

NAD(P)H dehydrogenase;

OGR1 –

Opaque and growth retardation 1;

PPR –

Pentatricopeptide repeat;

PREP –

Predictive RNA editors for plants;

PREPACT –

Plant RNA editing prediction and analysis computer tool;

REGAL –

RNA Editing site prediction by Genetic Algorithm Learning;

RESOPS –

RNA editing sites of land plant organelles on protein three-dimensional structures;

RRM –

RNA-recognition motif;

TPR –

Tetratri­copeptide repeat;

WT –

Wild type

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors apologize for the many studies on organellar RNA editing that were not discussed and cited here due to space limitations. Support by the DFG to CSL (Emmy Noether stipend) is gratefully acknowledged.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sabrina Finster
    • 1
  • Julia Legen
    • 1
  • Yujiao Qu
    • 1
  • Christian Schmitz-Linneweber
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of BiologyHumboldt University of BerlinBerlinGermany

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