Scaffolds for Human Dental Stem Cells to Regenerate Cementum
The basic strategy of tooth bioengineering involves the utilization of artificial extracellular matrix as scaffolds, in combination with specific cells under the stimulation of growth factors. Dental stem cells can successfully regenerated dental hard tissue according to the properties of scaffolds. The authors made synthetic hydroxyapatite (HA) from human tooth and named it as “toothapatite (TA)” because it was almost composed of HA and whitelockite. Through our research, biocompatibility, biodegradability and osteoconductivity of TA have been proven acceptable in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, TA can be anticipated as one of the adequate scaffold sources for culturing dental stem cells/dental cells. As degradable ‘bioceramics’, TA and β-tricalciumphosphate (TCP) were used with dental stem cells, in particular periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) and dental follicle stem cells (DFSCs) to regenerate cementum. The PDLSCs showed cellular cementum and DFSCs showed cementum–like mineralized tissues.
Polymer can serve as a framework for maintaining the shape of the defect so as to facilitate the regeneration of tissue. Poly-DL-lactide (PDLLA), as a degradable ‘polymer’, was added to bioceramics, creating TA/TCP/PDLLA composite scaffolds. The novel degradable bioceramic-polymer scaffolds, which have taken the merits of both bioceramics and polymer were fabricated, and the effects of these scaffolds seeded with human dental stem cells were investigated in vitro and in vivo. Like TA/TCP scaffolds, the bioceramic-polymer groups showed regenerated cementum-like mineralized tissue in vivo. Thus, TA/TCP/PDLLA scaffolds can be used as novel potential scaffolds to regenerate cementum in tooth bioengineering.
KeywordsCalcium Phosphate Composite Scaffold Amorphous Calcium Phosphate Dental Hard Tissue Dental Follicle
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