Meningioma Tumors: Detection of Subgroups
Meningiomas are neoplasms that arise from the leptomeningeal covering of the brain and spinal cord and represent around 20% of all central nervous system tumors. Medical writings from as early as the eighteenth century make reference to tumors arising from the meninges. The current standards for diagnosis of meningiomas are clinical and pathological findings. The World Health Organization (WHO) classifies meningiomas into three histological grades: grade I (benign), grade II (atypical), and grade III (anaplasic) in accordance with the clinical prognosis. In absolute numbers, most recurrent meningiomas correspond to histological benign tumours. The potential aggressiveness of an individual meningioma is still difficult to evaluate. Due to the potential recurrence of some meningioma regardless of the histological grade, the management of the meningioma patients must include an appropriate follow up strategy suited to the grade of surgical resection and the likelihood of recurrence in individual cases. The detection of new meningioma subgroups with clinical and biological relevance may help in these strategies. This review summarizes the most recent advances in the detection of meningioma subgroups using traditional and modern high throughput molecular techniques. Most relevant results on studies of meningioma using cytogenetics, proteomics, transcriptomics and metabolomics suggest that there are at least two molecular subgroups of histological benign meningiomas. These two subgroups exhibit very distinct genetic and biochemical properties and show different levels of metabolic aggressiveness. The assignment of individual meningiomas to one of these subgroups simultaneously to the traditional histopathological examination may improve the management of these tumors.
KeywordsAtypical Meningioma Benign Meningioma Anaplastic Meningioma Meningioma Patient Clear Cell Meningioma
The authors would like to acknowledge the funding sources that helped in the development of their research, part of which is reviewed here, in the recent years. The following funding sources are gratefully acknowledged: Consellería de Sanidad (GV-AP064/07, GV-AP076/08, GV-AP014/09, GV-AP119/10 and GV-AP023/10) and the Consellería de Educación (PROMETEO11/2011/083, FPA/2011/054, ACOMP2009-200, ACOMP2010-184 and ACOMP2011-237) de la Generalitat Valenciana, the Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia del Gobierno de España (SAF2008-00270, and Ramon y Cajal Contract 2006).
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