Fuzzy Logic

  • Ton J. Cleophas
  • Aeilko H. Zwinderman


Lofti Zadeh, professor of science at Berkeley, published in 1964 the concept of fuzzy truths, as answers that may be “yes” at one time and “no” at the other, or that may be partially true and partially untrue (Zadeh 1965). He developed an analytical model based on this concept. When you think of real life, you can imagine many things that are not entirely certain, and it is remarkable, therefore, that it took over 20 years before this analytical model became successfully implemented in science (Zadeh 1965). Nowadays Tokyo subway traffic uses fuzzy logic running and braking systems, and Maserati sportscars have a fuzzy logic automatic transmission with one position for forward instead of the usual three or four, and with much better performance.


Fuzzy Logic Fuzzy Modeling Fuzzy Membership Pharmacodynamic Modeling Time Response Data 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Bates JH, Young MP (2003) Applying fuzzy logic to medical decision making in the intensive care. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 167:948–952PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Catto JW, Linckens DA, Abbod MF, Chen M, Burton JL, Feeley KM, Hamdy FC (2003) Artificial intelligence in predicting bladder cancer outcome: a comparison of fuzzy modelling and artificial intelligence. Clin Cancer Res 9:4172–4177PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Caudrelier JM, Vial S, Gibon D, Kulik C, Swedko P, Boxwala A (2004) An authoring tool for fuzzy logic based decision support systems. Medinfo 9:1874–1879Google Scholar
  4. Defuzzification methods. Accessed 15 Dec 2011
  5. Fournier C, Castelain B, Coche-Dequeant B, Rousseau J (2003) MRI definition of target volumes using logic method for three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol 55:225–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Fuzzy logic: flexible environment for exploring fuzzy systems. Accessed 15 Dec 2011
  7. FuzzyLogic. Accessed 15 Dec 2011Google Scholar
  8. Helgason CM (2004) The application of fuzzy logic to the prescription of antithrombotic agents in the elderly. Drugs Aging 21:731–736PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Helgason CM, Jobe TH (2005) Fuzzy logic and continuous cellular automata in warfarin dosing of stroke patients. Curr Treat Options Cardiovasc Med 7:211–218PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hirota K (1993) Subway control. In: Hirota K (ed) Industrial applications of fuzzy technology. Springer, Tokyo, pp 263–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Naranjo CA, Bremmer KE, Bazoon M, Turksen IB (1997) Using fuzzy logic to predict response to citalopram in alcohol dependence. Clin Pharmacol Ther 62:209–224PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ross J (2004) Fuzzy logic with engineering applications, 2nd edn. Wiley, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  13. Russo M, Santagati NA (1998) Medicinal chemistry and fuzzy logic. Inform Sci 105:299–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. SAS Statistical Software. Accessed 15 Dec 2011
  15. SPSS Statistical Software. Accessed 15 Dec 2011
  16. Zadeh LA (1965) Fuzzy sets. Inf Control 8:338–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ton J. Cleophas
    • 1
    • 2
  • Aeilko H. Zwinderman
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Applied to Clinical TrialsEuropean Interuniversity College of Pharmaceutical MedicineLyonFrance
  2. 2.Department of MedicineAlbert Schweitzer HospitalDordrechtNetherlands
  3. 3.Department of Biostatistics and EpidemiologyAcademic Medical CenterAmsterdamNetherlands

Personalised recommendations