Tendon Injury: Role of Differentiation of Adult and Embryonic Derived Stem Cells

  • Yin Zi
  • Chen Xiao
  • Boon Chin Heng
  • Hong Wei Ouyang
Part of the Stem Cells and Cancer Stem Cells book series (STEM, volume 4)


Injuries to tendon are particularly common in sports activities, but there is poor self-repair capability of this unique connective tissue. As understanding of tendon biology is critical for the development of innovative therapy for successful tendon regeneration, the various cell sub-populations in tendon as well as their niche in tendon metabolism and pathology are described. Embryonic and adult stem cell-based tendon tissue engineering approaches have achieved encouraging results. This chapter focuses on introducing two promising strategies: (i) stepwise differentiation of embryonic stem cells for tendon tissue engineering, and (ii) incorporation of the matrix niche into tendon stem cell differentiation for complete tendon regeneration. Multifaceted technologies, such as incorporation of growth factors, bio-scaffolds, mechanical stimulation and genetic modification, are increasingly being utilized to control and direct stem cell differentiation, in the development of novel stem cell-based therapy for effective repair and regeneration of injured tendons.


Stem Cell Niche Tendon Injury Tendon Tissue Tendon Cell Tendon Regeneration 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yin Zi
    • 1
  • Chen Xiao
    • 1
  • Boon Chin Heng
    • 2
  • Hong Wei Ouyang
    • 1
  1. 1.Center for Stem Cell and Tissue Engineering, School of MedicineZhejiang UniversityHangzhouChina
  2. 2.School of Materials Science & EngineeringNanyang Technological UniversitySingaporeSingapore

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