Neural Stem/Progenitor Cell Proliferation and Differentiation: Role of Sonic Hedgehog and Wingless/Int-1 Proteins
The Sonic hedgehog and Wingless-Int protein (Wnt) signaling pathways have proven to be essential at various stages of neural development, but also in the ongoing neurogenesis of the adult hippocampus and subventricular zone under physiological conditions as well as in pathological states, such as traumatic brain injury, ischemia or neurodegenerative diseases. Here we review key findings demonstrating the role of Sonic hedgehog and Wingless-Int proteins (Wnts) in modulating the proliferation of neural stem/progenitor cells and affecting the fate decision of neural stem/progenitor cells during embryonic development. Moreover, we also review current findings elucidating the role of these morphogens during neonatal and adult neural stem cell differentiation and their possible role in adult neurogenesis induced by neurodegenerative disorders of the CNS.
KeywordsMorphogens Sonic hedgehog Wnts Development Mitogenic activity Progenitor survival Fate decision Adult neurogenesis CNS disorders
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