NO Synthesis and Cell Locomotion
Studies on the free-living freshwater ciliate Paramecium species provide evidence that NO synthesis affects the ciliary beat and consequent motility of cells (Acta Protozoologica 42:259–267, 2003; Eur J Protistol 42:201–208, 2006). In Paramecium NO is formed by a calcium dependent nNOS (NOS1)-like protein, which is distributed in the cytoplasm (Acta Protozoologica 42:259–267, 2003; Eur J Protistol 42:201–208, 2006). Blocked NO synthesis reduces the ability of cells moving toward zones with optimal temperature (Acta Protozoologica 42:259–267, 2003), supporting the idea that regulation of ciliary activity by cytoplasmic NO synthesis ensures oriented cell movements. In vertebrates, ciliated epithelial cells express eNOS in the airways, oviducts, testes and cerebral ventricles (J Histochem Cytochem 44:463–471, 1996; J Histochem Cytochem 51:81–87, 2003; J Histochem Cytochem 53:155–164, 2005; J Histochem Cytochem 55:433–442, 2007). In airway epithelia, eNOS occurs shortly after birth simultaneously with the activation of ciliary movements (J Histochem Cytochem 44:463–471, 1996); showing that NO synthesis is required for ciliary activity and mucus forwarding over the airway epithelia.
KeywordsGrowth Cone Sperm Motility Airway Epithelium Ciliary Beat Frequency Ciliary Activity
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